Part 2: Vocabulary

Artesian well:

  • Deep well through which water is forced up by underground pressure

Beef cattle:

  • Cattle raised for meat

Bonanza:

  • A source of great wealth or a big fortune

Bonanza farms:

  • Gigantic wheat farms that made huge sums of money
  • Ranged in size from 3,000 acres to over 75,000 acres

Brand:

  • Special identification mark burned onto the skin of animals

British Isles:

  • Large island group located off the northwest coast of Europe
  • Includes nations of Great Britain, Ireland, and some smaller islands

Cass, George:

  • President of Northern Pacific Railroad
  • Helped establish the first bonanza farm in the Red River Valley

Cavalry:

  • Soldiers on horseback

Census:

  • Count of the people

Chateau de Morès:

  • Home of the Marquis and his wife, Medora

Dalrymple, Oliver:

  • Managed the first bonanza farm
  • Became one of the largest bonanza farmers

Decade:

  • 10-year period

Ethnic:

  • Characteristics, customs, and culture of a group of people

Euro-Americans:

  • Americans with European ancestors
  • Sometimes called “whites”

Farm:

  • Piece of land on which crops or animals are raised

Frontier:

  • Edge of a settled area of a country

German-Russian:

  • A German whose ancestors lived in Russia for about 100 years
  • Germans from Russia

Ghost town:

  • Abandoned town

Great Britain:

  • England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland

Great Dakota Boom:

  • 1878 to 1886
  • Time period when the eastern two-thirds of North Dakota was settled

Homestead Act:

  • 160 acres of land given free to anyone who could meet certain conditions

Houston, David:

  • Bonanza farmer whose inventions made it possible for anyone to own a camera
  • Responsible for the name “Kodak”

Immigrant:

  • A person from another country who comes into a country to live

Literate:

  • Someone who is able to read and write

Marquis de Morès:

  • Member of French royal family who ranched in the Badlands
  • Founded town of Medora

Marquise de Morès:

  • Name was Medora
  • Married to the Marquis de Morès

Medora:

  • Wife of the Marquis de Morès
  • Badlands town named in honor of Medora von Hoffman

Miller, John:

  • First governor of North Dakota

Nokota horse:

  • Honorary equine (horse) of North Dakota

Open range:

  • Land that is not fenced, where cattle are free to graze

Pioneer:

  • A person who settles in an area that has not been occupied before except by tribes

Pre-emption Act:

  • Squatters could buy the land on which they were living

Proving up:

  • Meeting all the requirements of homesteading and receiving the deed to the land

Quarter section:

  • ¼ of a section of land
  • 160 acres
  • Measures ½ mile on each side

Ranch:

  • Large area of land used to raise herds of cattle, sheep, or horses

Roosevelt, Theodore:

  • Badlands rancher who became 26th U.S. president
  • Leader of Rough Riders cavalry unit that won a battle in Cuba during the Spanish-American War

Rough Riders:

  • Cavalry unit led by Theodore Roosevelt
  • Won battle at San Juan Hill in Cuba

Round House:

  • Circular house used by a Northern Pacific land agent for entertaining eastern land buyers
  • Contained an observation deck on the roof
  • Located in Wells County

Scandinavia:

  • Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland

Scandinavian:

  • A person from one of the Scandinavian countries

Section:

  • Square of land measuring one mile on each side
  • One square mile
  • 640 acres

Suffrage:

  • Voting rights

Timber Culture Act:

  • Tree claim
  • 160 acres of free land given to a person who agreed to plant trees on 10 acres