Further Research

References

  • Early Settlement of North Dakota
  • Frontier Era of North Dakota
  • American Indians of North Dakota

Image Captions

  • Early Settlement of North Dakota
  • Frontier Era of North Dakota
  • American Indians of North Dakota

Early Settlement of North Dakota

References

Berg, F.M. (1989). North Dakota: Land of Changing Seasons. Flying Diamond Books: Hettinger, North Dakota.

Berg, F.M. (Editor, 1984). Ethnic Heritage in North Dakota. Attiyeh Foundation: Washington, D.C.

Crawford, L.F. (1931). History of North Dakota. The American Historical Society, Inc.: Chicago and New York.

Drache, H.M. (1964). The Day of the Bonanza: A History of Bonanza Farming in the Red River Valley of the North. Lund Press, Inc.: Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Dresden, D. (1970). The Marquis de Morès: Emperor of the Badlands. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman.

Elizabeth Preston Anderson (2005, April 27). Dakota Date Book, Prairie Public Radio. http://www.prairiepublic.org/programs/datebook/

Ellsworth, V. (1989). “Called to Serve.” North Dakota: Women’s Christian Temperance Union, 1889–1989 Centennial.

Eriksmoen, C. (2006). Did You Know That . . . ? McCleery & Sons Publishing.

Eriksmoen, C. (2007, May 20). Little Missouri Horse Co. was One of the Largest Operations. The Bismarck Tribune, p. 5C.

Family Biographies: The Marquis de Morès. (2007). Chateau De Mores State Historic Site: School Tour Curriculum Project.
http://history.nd.gov/historicsites/chateaulesson/chateau_lessons.html

Fargo, North Dakota: Wheat Farm Stamp (2007).
http://www.fargo-history.com/early/stamp.htm

Fred Hultstrand Biography (2007). Northern Great Plains, 1880-1920. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/ndfahtml/hult_bio.html

Freedman, R. (1983). Children of the Wild West. Houghton Mifflin Company: New York.

Graves, K.A. (2002). Going to School in Pioneer Times. Blue Earth Books: Mankato, Minnesota.

Handy-Marchello, B. (2005). Women of the Northern Plains: Gender and Settlement on the Homestead Frontier 1870–1930. Minnesota Historical Society Press: St. Paul, Minnesota.

Hannan, M. & C. Naylor (1999). Dakota Day Trips: Discovering North Dakota’s Hidden Treasures. North Dakota Tourism, Bismarck, North Dakota.

Henke, W.A. & E.C. Albers (Editors, 1998). The Legacy of North Dakota’s Country Schools. The North Dakota Humanities Council, Bismarck, North Dakota.

Henke, W.A. & T.J. Kloberdanz (1999). Plains Folk: North Dakota’s Ethnic History. North Dakota Centennial Heritage Series.

Homesteading (2007, May). South Dakota State Historical Society Education Kit. http://www.sdhistory.org/mus/ed/ed%20home2.html

Howe, Neil D. & Theodore Jelliff (2007). North Dakota Legendary. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Jay Cooke, The Man (2007).
http://www.osu.edu/cookecastle/theman_b.html

John Burke (2007). The Architect of the Capitol: Capitol Complex. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/burke.cfm

Johnson, Bonnie T. (Editor, 2014). A Traveler’s Companion to North Dakota State Historic Sites. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Kalman, B. (1994). A One-Room School. Crabtree Publishing Company: New York.

Leifur, C.W. (1958). Our State North Dakota. American Book Company: New York.

Lindgren, H.E. (1996). Land in Her Own Name: Women as Homesteaders in North Dakota. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman.

Naugle, H.J. (1995, May 3). The Story of the Minnie H Steamboat on Devils Lake North Dakota. Benson County Farmers Press, Minnewauken, North Dakota.
http://tourism.devilslakend.com/what-to-do/explore-history/minnie-h/

North Dakota Governors: Part 2—1898–1913 (2007). State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://history.nd.gov/historicsites/fgm/

Northern Great Plains, 1880–1920 (2007).
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/ndfahtml/ngp_nd_ranch.html

Peavy, L. & U. Smith (1996). Pioneer Women: The Lives of Women on the Frontier. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman.

Perrone, V. (1986). Johanna Knudsen Miller: Pioneer Teacher. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Pioneer Children—Toys and Games.
http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/fun.html

Prairie Churches – Lighthouse on the Prairie. Prairie Public Television: Fargo, North Dakota.
http://www.ndstudies.org/media/prairie_churches_lighthouse_on_the_prairie

Reeve, M.S. (2007). Teacher Resource Information: Pioneer Games. Educational Outreach Program, American West Heritage Center.

Remembering John Burke (2004).
http://www.court.state.nd.us/court/news/burke/burke.htm

Robinson, E.B. (1995). History of North Dakota. Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University: Fargo, North Dakota.

Rolfsrud, E.R. (1963). The Story of North Dakota. Lantern Books: Alexandria, Minnesota.

Rolfsrud, E.R. (1990). Story of the Peace Garden State. Echo Printing: Alexandria, Minnesota.

Sagness, A. (1985). Sods, Logs, & Tar Paper. North Dakota Centennial Commission: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Spokesfield, W.E. (1929). The History of Wells County North Dakota and Its Pioneers. Higginson Book Company: Salem, Massachusetts.

The Encyclopedia of North Dakota (2001). Somerset Publishers, Inc.: St. Clair Shores, Michigan.

The Nokota Horse (2002, January). Stallion Issue.
http://www.horse-previews.com/0102articles/nokota.html

Trinka, Z.I. (1920). Out Where the West Begins: Early and Romantic History of North Dakota. The Pioneer Company: St. Paul, Minnesota.

Tweton, D.J. & E.C. Albers (Editors, 1996). The Way It Was: The North Dakota Frontier Experience Book One: The Sod-busters. The Grass Roots Press: Fessenden, North Dakota.

Wemett, W.M. (1929). A Geography of North Dakota. Northern School Supply Co.: Fargo, North Dakota.

Wick, D.A. (1988). North Dakota Place Names. Sweetgrass Communications Inc.: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Winistorfer, J.B. & C.A. Langemo (2006). Tracing Your Dakota Roots: A Guide to Genealogical Research in the Dakotas. Dakota Roots: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Witteman, B. (2001). Prairie in Her Heart: Pioneer Women of North Dakota. Arcadia Publishing: Chicago.

Frontier Era of North Dakota

References

A Few Thoughts about Red River Carts. Clay County Historical Society.
http://test.hcscconline.org/clay-county-histories/red-river-carts-reviewed/

A History of United Tribes Technical College.
http://uttc.edu/about/history/

Ambrose, S.E. (1996). Undaunted Courage. Simon & Schuster: New York.

Area History: Early Days.
http://mandanhistory.org/areahistory.html

Bell, C.N. (2007). Continuation of Henry’s Journal. Covering Adventures and Experiences in the Fur Trade on the Red River, 1799-1801. The Manitoba Historical Society: Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Berg, F.M. (1989). North Dakota: Land of Changing Seasons. Flying Diamond Books: Hettinger, North Dakota.

Calloway, C.G. (1988). New Directions in American Indian History. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, Oklahoma.

Cole, J.D.S. (1996). The Lewis and Clark Expedition 1803 to 1806: A Portrait of Army Leadership. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
http://www.history.army.mil/lc/the%20mission/lc_pamphlet/index.htm

Crawford, L.F. (1931). History of North Dakota. Volume 1. The American Historical Society, Inc.: Chicago and New York.

Dill, C.L. (1983). Early Peoples of North Dakota (Before 1858). State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Discovery Expedition: Rediscovering Lewis & Clark.
http://lewisandclark.net/discovery_expedition.html

Eddins, N. David Thompson Canadian Fur Trader and Mapmaker.
http://thefurtrapper.com/home-page/david-thompson/

Eriksmoen, C. (2006) Did You Know That…..? Volume 1. McCleery & Sons Publishing: United States of America.

Fehr. K. Rolling Out the Red Carpet. North Dakota Horizons, Fall 2001. Clearwater Communications: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://www.ndhorizons.com/featured/index.asp?ID=32

First White Baby in North Dakota. Dakota Datebook, December 29, 2003. Prairie Public Television: Fargo, North Dakota.
http://www.prairiepublic.org/radio/dakota-datebook?post=6219

Fort Abraham Lincoln: Home to Custer.
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/nd-fortabrahamlincoln.html

Heidenreich, V.L. (1990). The Fur Trade in North Dakota. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Howe, Neil D. & Theodore Jelliff (2007). North Dakota Legendary. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Isabel Gunn.
http://www.orkneyjar.com/history/historicalfigures/isobelgunn.htm

Jenkinson, C.S. (2002). A Lewis and Clark Chapbook: Lewis and Clark in North Dakota. North Dakota Humanities Council: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Johmann, C.A. (2003). The Lewis & Clark Expedition: Join the Corps of Discovery Explore Uncharted Territory. Williamson Publishing: Charlotte, Vermont.

John Jacob Astor.
http://spartacus-educational.com/USAastorJJ.htm

Johnson, B., Editor (2014). A Traveler’s Companion to North Dakota State Historic Sites. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Karwoski, G.L. (1999). Seaman: The Dog Who Explored the West with Lewis & Clark. Peachtree Publishers: Atlanta, Georgia.

Leifur, C.W. (1958). Our State North Dakota. American Book Company: New York.

Lewis and Clark: A Timeline of the Trip. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/idx_time.html

Lewis and Clark and the Language of Discovery (May 2001). Smithsonian in Your Classroom: Smithsonian Institution.
http://smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/lewis_clark/

Lewis and Clark Expedition: Scientific Encounters.
https://www.nps.gov/nr/Travel/lewisandclark/encounters.htm

Lewis and Clark Expedition - What Kind of Mammals and Birds Were Encountered? State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://history.nd.gov/exhibits/lewisclark/animals.html

Lewis and Clark Historic Trail.
http://lewisclark.net/

North Dakota Blue Book, 1989. North Dakota Secretary of State: Bismarck, North Dakota.

North Dakota Blue Book, 2015-2017. North Dakota Secretary of State: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Pompeys Pillar National Monument.
http://www.blm.gov/publish/content/mt/en/prog/nlcs_new/POMPEYSPILLAR_NM.html

Quest for Empire on the Northern Plains: Jeffersonian Expansionism & the Corps of Discovery. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://www.history.nd.gov/exhibits/lewisclark/

Remele, L. (1987). Fort Buford and the Military Frontier on the Northern Plains 1850-1900. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Robinson, E.B. (2003). History of North Dakota. Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University: Fargo, North Dakota.

Rolfsrud, E.N. (1963). The Story of North Dakota. Lantern Books: Alexandria, Minnesota.

Rolfsrud, E. N. (1990). Story of the Peace Garden State. Lantern Books: Farwell, Minnesota.

Shore, F.J. (2006). The Métis: Early Origins. University of Manitoba: Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Tate, M.L. (1999). The Frontier Army in the Settlement of the West. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

The Army Laundress.
http://fortconcho.com/laundress.htm

The Encyclopedia of North Dakota (2001). Somerset Publishers, Inc.: St. Clair Shores, Michigan.

The History and Culture of the Mniwakan Oyate. North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/sl-tribal-historical-overview

The History and Culture of the Standing Rock Oyate. North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/sr-tribal-historical-overview

The History and Culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa. North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/tm_tribal_historical_overview

The Orkney Lad: The Story of Isobel Gunn. Hudson’s Bay Company: Our History.
http://hbcheritage.ca/hbcheritage/history/people/women/isobelgunn.asp

Trinka, Z.I. (1920). Out Where the West Begins: Being the Early and Romantic History of North Dakota. The Pioneer Company: St. Paul, Minnesota.

Tweton, D.J. and T.B. Jelliff. (1983). North Dakota: The Heritage of a People. Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University: Fargo, North Dakota.

Wemett, W.M. (1923). The Story of the Flickertail State. W.M. Wemett: Valley City, North Dakota.

Wemett, W.M. (1929). A Geography of North Dakota. Northern School Supply: Fargo, North Dakota.

Wishart, D.J. (1979). The Fur Trade of the American West 1807-1840: A Geographical Synthesis. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, Nebraska.

Working Plan for Lincoln Bicentennial in North Dakota (November 2006). State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

American Indians of North Dakota

References

Calloway, C.G. (1988). New Directions in American Indian History. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, Oklahoma.

Campbell, M. (1992). People of the Buffalo: How the Plains Indians Lived. Douglas & McIntryre: Tornonto.

Carlson, L. (1994). More than Moccasins: A Kid’s Activity Guide to Traditional North American Indian Life. Chicago Review Press: Chicago, Illinois.

Dill, C.L. (1990). Early Peoples of North Dakota. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Doermann, E. (1979). Early Indian People. Minnesota Historical Society: St. Paul, Minnesota.
http://history.nd.gov/historicsites/doubleditch/

First Americans. Encarta for Kids.
http://www.encarta.in/people/people-in-american-history/native-americans.html

Fox, S.J. (1989). Native American Curriculum: High School Level. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Freedman, R. (1992). An Indian Winter. Library of Congress: Washington, D.C.

Freedman, R. (1988). Buffalo Hunt. Library of Congress: Washington, D.C.

Halvorson, M.J. (1998). Sacred Beauty: Quillwork of Plains Women. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Hanson, T.A., B.J. Patzman, and K.W. Weinberg (2001). Would You Have Gone with Lewis and Clark? United Printing: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Howe, Neil and Theodore Jelliff (2006). North Dakota Legendary. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Lakota Writings.
http://ww1.lakotawritings.com/

Landau, E. (1989). The Sioux. Library of Congress: Washington, D.C.

Laundau, P.L. and J. Bopp, M. Bopp, L. Brown (1985). The Sacred Tree. Lotus Press: Twin Lakes, Wisconsin.

Mails, T.E. (1997). Peoples of the Plains. Council Oaks Books: Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Mails, T.E. (1996). The Mystic Warriors of the Plains: The Culture, Arts, Crafts and Religion of the Plains Indians. Marlowe and Company: New York.

Mary Louise Defender Wilson, Storyteller. National Endowment for the Arts, National Heritage Fellowships.
https://www.arts.gov/honors/heritage/fellows/mary-louise-defender-wilson

Means, R. (1998). “I am an American Indian, Not a Native American.”
http://compusci.com/indian/

Medicine Wheel Teachings by Shannon Thunderbird. Thuder-ous Teya Peya Productions.
http://www.shannonthunderbird.com/medicine_wheel_teachings.htm

Medicine Women. Lewis and Clark Trail.
http://lewisandclarktrail.com/section2/medicinewomen.htm

Native American Indians. Native Americans.
http://ww12.nativeamericans.com/

Native American Authors Project. Louise Erdrich, 1954-.
http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/A30

“Navy Ship Bearing Indian Guide’s Name Christened.” Bismarck Tribune: Associated Press, June 26, 2006, Page 2A.

North Dakota Blue Book, 2001-2003. North Dakota Secretary of State: Bismarck, North Dakota.

North Dakota Blue Book, 2015-2017. North Dakota Secretary of State: Bismarck, North Dakota.

O’Brien, S. (1989). American Indian Tribal Governments. University of Oklahoma Press: Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Peters, V.B. (1995). Women of the Earth Lodges: Tribal Life on the Plains. University of Oklahoma: Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Powwow Power.
http://powwow-power.com/

Rave, J. “Eagle Feathers Bring Honor to Graduation Ceremonies.” Bismarck Tribune, May 28, 2006, Page 5C.

Ridenhower, M. and A.B. Zins (1989). Women of North Dakota: Celebrating Their Lives through Primary and Secondary Sources. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction: Bismarck, North Dakota.

Sacagawea. Prairie Public Television.
http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/inside/saca.html

Schneider, M.J. (1986). North Dakota Indians: An Introduction. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: Dubuque, Iowa.

Sita, L. (1997). Indians of the Great Plains: Traditions, History, Legends, and Life. Gareth Stevens Publishing: Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Slapin, B. and D. Seale (1992). Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children. New Society Publishers: Philadelphia.

Springer, P. (2003). “Garrison Dam: The Unfinished Dream.” The Forum, Fargo, North Dakota, June 8, 2003.

Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Government. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.
http://standingrock.org/

Stanton, J. “White Buffalo Calf Woman.” St. Cloud State University.
http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/kaleidoscope/volume6/page8.html

Sterne, C.W. “Sitting Bull.” Manataka American Indian Council.

http://www.manataka.org/page55.html

Stevens, M.W. (2003). Biographical Dictionary of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara. Fort Berthold Library: New Town, North Dakota.

Taylor, C. (1993). What Do We Know about the Plains Indians? Peter Bedrick Books: New York.

Terry, M.B.H. (1999). Daily Life in a Plains Indian Village, 1868. Clarion Books: New York.

The History and Culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (Arikara). North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/threeaffiliated_historical_overview

The History and Culture of the Mniwakan Oyate. North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/sl-tribal-historical-overview

The History and Culture of the Standing Rock Oyate. North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/sr-tribal-historical-overview

The History and Culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa. North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota.
http://ndstudies.gov/tm_tribal_historical_overview

The History of Sitting Bull College. Sitting Bull College.
https://sittingbull.edu/history/

The Last Years of Sitting Bull. State Historical Society of North Dakota: Bismarck, North Dakota, September 30, 1984.

The Medicine Wheel—Circle of Life. Medicine Wheel.
http://medicinewheel.com/

The People: The Mandan Indian Nation. Corps of Discovery: United States Army.
http://www.history.army.mil/lc/The%20People/Indian_Nations/Mandan/gallery.htm

Thomas, D.H. (2006). Native Americans. Barnes and Noble Publishing, Inc.: New York.

Thomasma, K. (2003). The Truth about Sacajawea. Grandview Publishing Company: Jackson, Wyoming.

Through Indian Eyes: The Untold Story of Native American Peoples. The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc.: Pleasantville, New York.

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Tribal Statistics. Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa.
http://tmbci.org/

Turtle Island Storyteller Keith Bear. Turtle Island Storytellers Network.
http://www.wisdomoftheelders.org/turtle-island-storyteller-keith-bear/

Turtle Mountain Chippewa Indian Heritage Center. Chippewa Heritage.
http://www.chippewaheritage.com/

Tweton, D.J. and T.B. Jelliff. (1983). North Dakota: The Heritage of a People. Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University: Fargo, North Dakota.

Utter, J. (1993). American Indians: Answers to Today’s Questions. National Woodlands Publishing Company: Lake Ann, Michigan.

Viola, H.J. (1990). American Indian Stories: Sitting Bull. Raintree Publishing: Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Welcome to Mni Wakan Oyate Home Page. Spirit Lake Nation.
http://www.spiritlakenation.com/

Early Settlement of North Dakota

Image Captions

Figure 1. William Jayne was the first governor of Dakota Territory. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2856)

Figure 2. Dakota Territory, 1868-1889. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 3. Alexander McKenzie was the political “Boss of North Dakota.” (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2279)

Figure 4. Nehemiah Ordway, Dakota territorial governor, 1880. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A0034)

Figure 5. The first capitol building of Dakota Territory was located in Yankton, in present-day South Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0389-53)

Figure 6. A new capitol building for Dakota Territory was built in Bismarck in 1883. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 00132-0006)

Figure 7. Sitting Bull led the parade to the new territorial capitol for the laying of the cornerstone on September 5, 1883. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C1780)

Figure 8. North Dakota became the 39th state on November 2, 1889. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 6015)

Figure 9. John Burke was elected 10th governor of North Dakota in 1906. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 10121-204)

Figure 10. Red River cart trains hauled goods from Pembina to St. Paul. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A1934)

Figure 11. The Far West steamer brought news of Custer’s defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, D0005)

Figure 12. Captain Grant Marsh, pilot of the Far West. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A4455)

Figure 13. The Minnie H steamboat made its final trip on Devils Lake in 1908. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.388)

Figure 14. The Fort Totten Indian School Band, 1907. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0982-001)

Figure 15. Medora-Deadwood Stagecoach. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0097-46)

Figure 16. This early North Dakota train is pulling many “cattle cars.” (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0924)

Figure 17. The Northern Pacific Railroad was the first railroad to enter North Dakota. This train is hauling farm machinery to early homesteaders. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C1084)

Figure 18. Northern Pacific Railroad Routes, 1872–1887. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 19. James J. Hill, the “Empire Builder.” (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A3616)

Figure 20. Great Northern Railway construction crews, building track near Minot, North Dakota, 1887. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A3674)

Figure 21. Great Northern Railway Routes, 1883–1887. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 22. Great Northern Railway engine and crew near Williston, North Dakota in 1912. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A3667)

Figure 23. Great Northern train four miles west of Minot, North Dakota. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.388)

Figure 24. Soo Line Railroad Route, 1891–1893. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 25. Great Northern Railway Depot in Wahpeton, North Dakota, early 1900s. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0729-15)

Figure 26. Early telegraph machine and Morse code. (Photo courtesy of the National Museum of American History)

Figure 27. A section of land is one mile square and equals 640 acres. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 28. North Dakota pioneer family and home, Cooperstown, North Dakota, 1890. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Mss 0296.160.30)

Figure 29. Advertisement for the Northern Pacific Railroad. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 20781)

Figure 30. James and Hellen Power. (Day of Bonanza, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo)

Figure 31. Oliver Dalrymple. (Day of Bonanza, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo)

Figure 32. David Houston invented roll film for cameras, which he sold to Eastman Kodak Company in the late 1880s. David Houston lived near Hunter, North Dakota. His home has been restored and is now located at Bonanzaville, USA in West Fargo, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 10121-204)

Figure 33. Harvest time on the Dalrymple Bonanza Farm, 1877. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A5833)

Figure 34. John Miller, the first governor of North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A1263)

Figure 35. Bagg Bonanza Farm near Mooreton in Richland County, North Dakota, early 1900s. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0699-01)

Figure 36. Bagg Bonanza Farmhouse today. (North Dakota Tourism, VA0043)

Figure 37. 13 horse-drawn plows on the Bagg Bonanza Farm. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0355-09)

Figure 38. Amenia and Sharon Land Company, Cass County, North Dakota. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, 0005.05.01)

Figure 39. U.S. Postage Stamp showing the Amenia and Sharon Land Company. (Bureau of Engraving, #286 2c, “Farming in the West”)

Figure 40. Cowboys camping in the Badlands. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A0686)

Figure 41. Rounding up cattle on the open range of North Dakota, 1905. (Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-56804)

Figure 42. Theodore Roosevelt dressed in buckskin and moccasins, ready for the hunt. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A7209)

Figure 43. Sketch of Theodore Roosevelt’s Elkhorn Ranch, near Medora, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2294)

Figure 44. President Theodore Roosevelt and his family. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0410-062)

Figure 45. Theodore Roosevelt, 26th U.S. President.

Figure 46. Nokota horse. (Nokota Horse Conservancy, Photo by Dr. Castle McLaughlin)

Figure 47. Theodore Roosevelt’s cabin at the Maltese Cross Ranch near Medora, North Dakota. (Photo by Jess Stryker)

Figure 48. Roosevelt’s Maltese Cabin—Kitchen. (Photo by Jess Stryker)

Figure 49. Roosevelt’s Maltese Cabin—Bedroom. (Photo by Jess Stryker)

Figure 50. The Marquis de Morés in a top hat. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0042-102)

Figure 51. Medora, the Marquise de Morés. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1972.1630)

Figure 52. Immigrant Family, 1890s, near Osnabrock, North Dakota. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.442)

Figure 53. The Hurd Round House, near Hurdsfield, North Dakota. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 54. The Hurd House—Pumphouse. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 55. A Rural Lutheran Church, east of Carrington in rural Foster County, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 56. Settlement of Norwegians in North Dakota. (Data collected by William Sherman)

Figure 57. Norwegian immigrant couple, 1880s. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 0150-01-01)

Figure 58. Icelandic immigrants, Park River, North Dakota, about 1891. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.447)

Figure 59. German-Russian immigrants, McIntosh County, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0075-233)

Figure 60. Catherine II of Russia, also known as "Catherine the Great."

Figure 61. Settlement of Germans and Germans from Russia in North Dakota. (Data collected by William Sherman)

Figure 62. Canadian-American Immigrant Family. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.451)

Figure 63. The Chateau de Morés near Medora, was home to the French nobleman the Marquis de Morès. (North Dakota Tourism, WE0123)

Figure 64. Ukrainian Dancers. Many immigrants from Ukraine settled near Dickinson and Belfield, North Dakota. (North Dakota Tourism, EV0045)

Figure 65. St. Stanislaus Catholic Church in Warsaw (Walsh County) North Dakota has been called the “Cathedral of the Prairie.” Many Polish immigrants settled in the Warsaw area of Walsh County. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 66. Immigrants arriving in America at Ellis Island, about 1906. (Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-11202)

Figure 67. View of Ellis Island and immigration station today. (Courtesy of the National Park Service)

Figure 68. Immigrant homesteaders arriving by train in Hettinger, North Dakota, 1908. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A1719-2)

Figure 69. Homesteaders heading for North Dakota by train about 1900. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0090-0207)

Figure 70. Main Street, Park River, Dakota Territory, 1885. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.225)

Figure 71. The General Store sold groceries, clothing, and other items to early pioneers. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.251)

Figure 72. Early livery stable Dakota Territory, 1880s. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.228)

Figure 73. Log cabin with a sod roof located along the Park River. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.123)

Figure 74. Sod home near Milton, North Dakota, 1890. Some sod homes were only 10 feet by 12 feet in size. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.059)

Figure 75. Fred Hultstrand. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.500)

Figure 76. Tarpaper shacks provided homes for many homesteaders. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.119)

Figure 77. Early homesteaders gather for a visit near a sod home. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0694)

Figure 78. Claim shanties were built by early settlers until they could “prove-up” their homestead. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.015)

Figure 79. Interiors of sod homes were sometimes lined with newspaper for insulation. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.079)

Figure 80. Interior of a sod home showing the kitchen area. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, B0378)

Figure 81. This early sod structure was used as a school. In the background are two outhouses, one for the boys and one for the girls. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.006)

Figure 82. Early North Dakota Homestead. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.259)

Figure 83. Breaking sod using walking plows. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.150)

Figure 84. This sod barn was built in Walsh County in the 1880s. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.054)

Figure 85. Spring wheat was the main crop grown by early North Dakota farmers. (North Dakota Tourism, Photo by Jason Lindsey)

Figure 86. Binders were used to cut and gather the grain into bundles. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.149)

Figure 87. Shocking grain near Fairdale, North Dakota, 1911. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.237)

Figure 88. Seeding a field of wheat using a horse-drawn harrow and drill, near Fessenden, North Dakota. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 191.1.3)

Figure 89. Threshing grain, Cavalier County, North Dakota, 1895. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.259)

Figure 90. The cook car was one of the most important parts of the threshing operation. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collections, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.179)

Figure 91. Oxen pulling a hay rack, ready for a long day’s work. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.181)

Figure 92. Early Settlers, Hettinger County, North Dakota. Life on the North Dakota prairie was hard and sometimes lonely work. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0090-0373)

Figure 93. Firebreaks surrounding the homestead protected it from prairie fires. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.060)

Figure 94. The Fargo Fire of 1893 destroyed much of the city. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2070.211.2)

Figure 95. Plowing on the Kingman Bonanza Farm, north of Hillsboro, North Dakota, about 1890. The plowing required 70 horses. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.490)

Figure 96. Wash day on the homestead. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.195)

Figure 97. Women did their share of work on the early homesteads. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.183)

Figure 98. Children had their responsibilities. This young boy has the job of feeding the chickens. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.213)

Figure 99. In the early 1900s, North Dakota had hundreds of one-room country schoolhouses. This school building, the Mimer School No. 52, still stands near Velva in McHenry County, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 100. The Soper School and students, 1896. A teacher often taught more than 30 students in one-room country schoolhouses. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.224)

Figure 101. Michigan, North Dakota, 7th and 8th grade students, early 1900s. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, D0526)

Figure 102. Elizabeth Preston Anderson (front left) at the signing of the women’s suffrage bill, January 13, 1917. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, mss 1942-02-03)

Figure 103. The Manfred School, in Wells County, North Dakota, early 1900s. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0408-008)

Figure 104. First Ladies Aid at Highland Church, Nekoma, North Dakota, early 1900s. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.441)

Figure 105. Early German-Russian immigrants used iron crosses to mark the graves in church cemeteries. (North Dakota Tourism, WE0158)

Figure 106. St. Mary’s Abbey Church, Richardton, North Dakota. Construction of the abbey occurred between 1906 and 1910. (North Dakota Tourism, Clayton Wolt, WE0148)

Figure 107. Norwegian Lutheran Church, rural Denbigh, McHenry County, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0032)

Figure 108. Until the early 1960s, one-room country schoolhouses were a place for social gatherings. These schools often hosted Christmas programs, carnivals, and spelling bees. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 109. Early North Dakotans enjoyed holiday celebrations. This photo shows the 4th of July celebration in Osnabrock, North Dakota, 1908. (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.209)

Figure 110. Grand Forks Opera House, early 1900s. Traveling theatrical groups from New York often played there. (Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 67.1.5)

Figure 111. One of North Dakota’s first “horseless carriages.” (Fred Hultstrand History in Pictures Collection, Institute for Regional Studies, NDSU, Fargo, 2028.402)

Figure 112. The Pioneer Statue, located on the grounds of the State Capitol in Bismarck, honors all the men, women, and children whose dedication and pioneer spirit built North Dakota. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Frontier Era of North Dakota

Image Captions

Figure 1. Between the years 1738 to 1870, North Dakota was part of the great American frontier.​ Millions of bison roamed the plains. (National Park Service, “Still Hunt” by James H. Moser)

Figure 2. Trappers caught large numbers of beaver, especially before 1830. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A3931)

Figure 3. Trappers placed a high value on beaver pelts. Europeans used beaver pelts to make fur hats and other clothing. (University of South Carolina)

Figure 4. Pierre La Vérendrye was one of the first non-Indians to record a visit to what is now North Dakota. He kept a journal and wrote about his travel experiences. (Library and Archives Canada, 2895946)

Figure 5. Map of America, about 1763. The British colonies are shaded green; Spanish Florida is shaded pink; and French Louisiana is shaded in yellow. (Library of Congress)

Figure 6. Sketch of the Missouri and Knife Rivers drawn by David Thompson in 1798. It was copied and used by Lewis and Clark on their expedition. (Library of Congress, G4 127.M5 1798.B4 TIL)

Figure 7. David Thompson helped determine the location of the 49th parallel. The 49th parallel is part of the boundary between the United States and Canada. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 8. The inscription at the base of the David Thompson Memorial. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 9. The David Thompson Memorial is located along the Mouse River about 8 miles northeast of Velva, North Dakota. It is near the abandoned town of Verendrye. The monument was placed at this site by the Great Northern Railway in 1925. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 10. Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million. (Library of Congress, Jacques Louis David reproduction)

Figure 11. Thomas Jefferson was President when the U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France. (Library of Congress)

Figure 12. The Louisiana Territory. After the Territory was purchased from France in 1803, it doubled the size of the United States. Much of present-day North Dakota was part of the Louisiana Territory. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 13. French, British, and Euro‐American trappers and traders did business with American Indians all over the frontier. (Atlas of Canada, Natural Resources)

Figure 14. A Red River cart train arrives at Fort Pembina. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A5117-1)

Figure 15. The otter was one of the animals trapped by the fur traders. (National Park Service)

Figure 16. Traders trapped muskrats for their fur. (National Park Service)

Figure 17. Thomas Douglas, the Earl of Selkirk. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A4201)

Figure 18. Hudson’s Bay Company traders, early 1800s. (Education Technology Clearinghouse athttp://etc.usf.edu)

Figure 19. Métis campsite. Notice the Red River carts next to each tipi. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0621)

Figure 20. Red River cart trails. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 21. Red River carts were made entirely of wood. (Pembina State Museum, Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 22. “Jolly Joe” Rolette. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2961-2)

Figure 23. Red River carts and traders camped near present-day St. Paul, Minnesota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0573)

Figure 24. Norman Kittson , American Fur Company trader. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0893-Album)

Figure 25. Norman Kittson's trading post at Walhalla is the oldest building in North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0153-13)

Figure 26. Father George Belcourt. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0986-03)

Figure 27. Charles Cavaleer. Cavalier County and the city of Cavalier, North Dakota are both named after Charles Cavaleer. (North Dakota History by Clement Lounsberry)

Figure 28. Trading post building at the Gingras State Historic Site, Walhalla, North Dakota. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 29: Antoine Gingras. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 00200-4x5-00282)

Figure 30. The steamboat Anson Northrup could travel from Fort Abercrombie to Fort Garry in four days (251 miles). (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2705)

Figure 31. Red River and Missouri River steamboats sometimes included fancy dining rooms. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2821)​

Figure 32. Steamboats International and Selkirk on the Red River. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, B0234)​

Figure 33. Meriwether Lewis was the private secretary to President Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson asked Lewis to lead the expedition. (National Geographic Society, “ In the Footsteps of Lewis and Clark”)

Figure 34. William Clark was a map-maker and expert woodsman. (National Geographic Society, “In the Footsteps of Lewis and Clark”)

Figure 35. Lewis and Clark entering Black Cat Village, a Mandan village in North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 2003.9)

Figure 36. Pirogues (dug-out canoes) were used on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (U.S. Army atwww.army.mil)

Figure 37. Keelboats are flat-bottomed boats. They were used to carry supplies for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (U.S. Army atwww.army.mil)

Figure 38. The interior of a keelboat could hold a great amount of cargo. Every inch of space on the keelboat was used on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (U.S. Army atwww.army.mil)

Figure 39. Lewis and Clark flew the national colors (flag) atop the keelboat and pirogues. Peace medals were given to Indians as a token of good will from President Jefferson. (U.S. Army and the Library of Congress)

Figure 40. Lewis Clark entering a Mandan Village. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 11549)

Figure 41. Fort Mandan. A reconstructed Fort Mandan is located near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. (Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, Photo by David Borlaug)

Figure 42. This statue of Sakakawea is located on the state capitol grounds in Bismarck, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 2003-09-06-08)

Figure 43. York talking with members of the Expedition, including Captain Lewis. This photo shows a reenactment portraying York. (U.S. Army atwww.army.mil)

Figure 44. Private John Shields was a blacksmith on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This photo shows a reenactment portraying John Shields. (U.S. Army atwww.army.mil)

Figure 45. A dug‐out canoe on display at the Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center in Washburn, North Dakota. (Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, Photo by David Borlaug)

Figure 46. These 12‐foot‐tall steel statues of Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Mandan Chief Sheheke greet visitors to the Fort Mandan Interpretive Center in Washburn, North Dakota. (Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, Photo by David Borlaug)​

Figure 47. Seaman Overlook. This is a statue of Seaman, the loyal companion of Meriwether Lewis. It is located near the Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center at Washburn, North Dakota. (Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, Photo by David Borlaug)

Figure 48. North Dakota’s prairie dogs were described as “barking squirrels” by Lewis and Clark. (North Dakota Game and Fish Department)

Figure 49. Grizzly bears were encountered along the Lewis and Clark journey. (www.FirstPeople.us)

Figure 50. Sakakawea is shown translating for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1985.22)

Figure 51. On August 5, 1805, Meriwether Lewis climbed to the top of a hill now known as “Lewis’s Lookout.” It is located a short distance from Dillon, Montana. Lewis hoped to gain a better view of the landscape on the journey toward the Columbia River. (National Park Service)

Figure 52. After crossing the Rocky Mountains, the Corps of Discovery headed down the Columbia River. The Expedition spotted the Pacific Ocean on November 7, 1805. (National Park Service)

Figure 53. A scenic view of the Columbia River today. (National Park Service)

Figure 54. The routes taken by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–1806. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 55. Pompey’s Pillar. William Clark carved his name here on July 25, 1806. (Photo by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 56. The Sakakawea golden dollar coin was issued by the United States Mint in 2000. (United States Mint)

Figure 57. Lake Sakakaweais a man-made lake in western North Dakota. It is named in honor of the famous woman on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (North Dakota State Water Commission)

Figure 58. This 1814 map is based on the sketches made by Lewis and Clark. It shows the Missouri River, other rivers, and the Rocky Mountains. The blue outline shows present-day North Dakota. (Library of Congress)

Figure 59. Maps from the journals of Lewis and Clark. (Library of Congress, “ History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark”)

Figure 60. Manuel Lisa. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A5128)​

Figure 61. John Jacob Astor organized the American Fur Company. (Education Technology Clearinghouse athttp://etc.usf.edu)

Figure 62. Reconstructed Fort Union, near present-day Williston, North Dakota. (North Dakota Tourism)

Figure 63. Map of the Fur Trading Posts in North Dakota, 1800-1845. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 64. The Rosebud was one of the steamboats used on the Missouri River. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0634)

Figure 65. John James Audubon is known for his paintings of birds. (National Park Service)

Figure 66. Like‐A‐Fishhook Village was home to the Mandan and Hidatsa. It was a trade center for the region. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 799)

Figure 67. Bison hides were valuable to the frontier trader. (National Park Service)​

Figure 68. Dakota Territory, 1861-1889. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 69. Chief Little Crow. (Smithsonian Institution)

Figure 70. General Henry Sibley. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A3200)

Figure 71. General Alfred Sully. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0123-29)

Figure 72. Sully Campsite in the Badlands, 1864. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0004-09)

Figure 73. Whitestone Hill. A copy of an original painting by General Alfred Sully. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, SA10548-v3)

Figure 74. The beautiful scenery of the Killdeer Mountains in western North Dakota. The Battle of Killdeer Mountains was fought near here in 1864. (North Dakota Tourism)

Figure 75. The routes of Sibley and Sully, 1863 and 1864. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 76. Fanny Kelly was captured and held captive by Lakota warriors. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 00200-6x8-00308)

Figure 77. Fort Rice was built by General Sully in 1864. It is located south of present-day Mandan, North Dakota, (U.S Army at www.army.mil)

Figure 78. Fort Abercrombie was built in 1858 north of present-day Wahpeton, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota)

Figure 79. A reconstructed blockhouse located at Fort Abercrombie State Park. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 80. Linda Slaughter was an early Bismarck resident. She led efforts to create the first historical society in North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota)

Figure 81. Fort Totten Indian Boarding School. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 2007-P-02-01)

Figure 82. A view of Fort Totten today. (North Dakota Tourism, LG0064)

Figure 83. Map of North Dakota frontier military forts. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 84. Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer commanded the U.S. 7th Cavalry at Fort Abraham Lincoln. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0478-3)

Figure 85. Reconstructed blockhouses at Fort Abraham Lincoln, south of Mandan, North Dakota. (North Dakota Tourism, WE0038)

Figure 86.A reconstructed blockhouse at Fort Abraham Lincoln. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 87. Sitting Bull was a respected leader of the Lakota Sioux. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2250-03)

Figure 88. Chief Rain‐in‐the‐Face, Standing Rock Sioux, was a key leader at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. (Standing Rock Tribal Council, Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 89. Group photo at Fort Abraham Lincoln, about 1876. Lt. Colonel Custer is the third person from the left. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0022-H-0034)

Figure 90. The steamboat Far West brought the news of Custer’s defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C1702)

Figure 91. Captain Grant Marsh was the pilot of the Far West. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A4455)

Figure 92. Elizabeth (Libby) Custer, wife of Lt. Colonel George Custer. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0022-H-069)

Figure 93. The U.S. Cavalry on parade at Fort Yates. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0466)

Figure 94. Replica of Lt. Colonel Custer’s home at Fort Abraham Lincoln. (Fort Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 95. Uniforms of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Left to right: captain infantry, infantry officer, artillery officer, sergeant of infantry, private of artillery, private of infantry, recruit rifle uniform. (U.S. Army atwww.army.mil)

Figure 96. Enlisted men and their wives at Fort Buford. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0235-007)

Figure 97. The steamboat Selkirk at Fargo, 1872. The Selkirk is next to the unfinished railroad bridge over the Red River. The Northern Pacific Railroad completed the bridge only months later. On June 6, 1872, the first train entered Fargo, Dakota Territory. The coming of the railroad marked the end of the frontier era in North Dakota. (Clay County Historical Society)

American Indians of North Dakota

Image Captions

Figure 1. Earthlodges at On-A-Slant village near the present-day city of Mandan, North Dakota. (North Dakota Tourism, JL 217-5)

Figure 2. The U.S. government began forcing American Indians onto reservations in 1851. This Indian Affairs map shows American Indian reservations in 1874. (State Historical Society of North Dakota)

Figure 3. Figure 3. Treaties greatly reduced the size of reservations. This map shows how the Turtle Mountain Reservation was reduced in size. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 4. “The Storyteller,” a Paleo-Indian village camp scene. (National Park Service, Painting by Martin Pate)

Figure 5. Bering Strait land bridge. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 6. Paleo-Indians butchering a giant bison at end of the Ice Age while a mammoth looks on. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1996.25.1)

Figure 7. This ancient bison skull was found near New Town, North Dakota. The skull has a horn span of seven feet. The skull is on exhibit at the North Dakota Heritage Center & State Museum in Bismarck, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 98-44.1)

Figure 8. Woodland pottery. Pieces of a pot found in North Dakota (right). Also shown is a replica (copy) of the pot (left). Pottery examples are on display at the North Dakota Heritage Center & State Museum in Bismarck, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 9. Plains Woodland Camp Scene. (National Park Service, Painting by Martin Pate)

Figure 10. Keith Bear. (lewisandclarknet.org)

Figure 11. Knife River flint. An example of a knife blade (4 ½ inches in height) found in Dunn County, North Dakota (left). Two spear points made of Knife River flint found in north central North Dakota. Notice the lighter curst on the knife blade (left). (North Dakota Geological Survey)

Figure 12. Drawing by Sitting Rabbit of the high village of Mandan, called Mi-Ti-Was-Kos. The village consisted of about 30 earthlodges. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 800)

Figure 13. Winter count by Swift Dog. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 674)

Figure 14. Mary Louise Defender Wilson. (Photo courtesy of wwwstate.nd.us/arts)

Figure 15. Cache pit. A cache pit was used to store dried corn, nuts, berries, and squash. This is a side view showing the inside of a cache pit. (Fort Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 16. Birds-eye view of a Mandan village. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 970.1C289NL)

Figure 17. On-A-Slant village is located south of the present-day city of Mandan, North Dakota. (Fort Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 18. The horse was valued by the Plains Indians. Horses provided a big advantage in hunting and war. The horse was also used for trading. Notice the items that could be traded for a horse. (State Historical Society of North Dakota-ND Studies)

Figure 19. Mandan horse races. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 970.1)

Figure 20. Like-A-Fishhook village, named for its location, was built by the Mandan and Hidatsa. The drawing is by Martin Bears Arm. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 799)

Figure 21. The Lewis and Clark Expedition visits Black Cat village in 1806. The village was near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 2003.9)

Figure 22. The Great Dakota Nation (about 1822) consisted of three separate groups—the Lakota (or Teton), Nakota (or Yankton), and Dakota (or Santee). (State Historical Society of North Dakota-ND Studies)

Figure 23. This chart shows the divisions of the Great Dakota Nation. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 24. “A Walking Department Store.” The bison provided food, shelter, and clothing for Plains Indians. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 25. Chief Rain-in-the-Face was a traditional Lakota leader from the Standing Rock Sioux Nation. He was a brave warrior who stood firm to prevent the senseless killing of bison and other game. Rain-in-the-Face was also a key leader at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. (Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Council, Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 26. Bison bones being shipped by railroad from the Minot, North Dakota area. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0739)

Figure 27. Sitting Bull. (Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Council)

Figure 28. Birch-bark canoe. The Chippewa used the birch-bark canoe for fishing and travel. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 053-04)

Figure 29. A Chippewa family shown with a Red River cart. Red River carts were equipped with high wheels that traveled well on prairie sod. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A2472-2)

Figure 30. Map of Red River cart trails. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 31. North Dakota Reservations. (State Historical Society of North Dakota-ND Studies)

Figure 32. Garrison Dam and Lake Sakakawea. Water is released from the lake through the spillway, and it flows down the Missouri River to the south. (North Dakota Game and Fish Department)

Figure 33. The Three Affiliated Tribes logo. (Neil Howe)

Figure 34. Sakakawea, daughter of a Shoshoni chief, helped guide the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 2003-09-08)

Figure 35. Fort Berthold Reservation. This map shows the Missouri River before the Garrison Dam was built. It also shows the area taken by Lake Sakakwea after Garrison Dam was completed. Notice the towns and villages that existed before the dam was built. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 36. Dedication of the Four Bears Bridge. The Four Bears Bridge was originally built at Elbowoods in 1934. It was moved to present-day New Town, North Dakota in 1955. That bridge was replaced with a totally new bridge in 2005. (Photo by Todd Jacobson)

Figure 37. The new Four Bears Bridge is located at New Town, North Dakota. It was completed and dedicated in 2005.(Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 38. Mandan Chief Four Bears. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0597)

Figures 39, 40, 41. Spirit Lake Nation Reservation logos. Cankdeska Cikana Community College logo (left), Spirit Lake “Overlook” logo (center), the Four Winds High School logo (right). In 2016, the Four Winds-Minnewaukan High School boy’s basketball team won the North Dakota Class B state championship. (www.spiritlakenation.com)

Figure 42. The Spirit Lake Casino and Resort south of Devils Lake, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 43. Two men at the Fort Totten (Spirit Lake) Reservation. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A0574)

Figure 44. Logo for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 45. This stone marks the site where Sitting Bull was buried in 1890. It is located in Fort Yates, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 46. Standing Rock Monument. This monument is located near the entrance to the Standing Rock Tribal headquarters in Fort Yates, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 47. Tribal Headquarters building for the Standing Rock Sioux at Fort Yates, North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 48. Josephine Gates Kelly. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1952-5040)

Figure 49. A Chippewa bandolier. Warriors wore the bandolier across the shoulders and used the pockets to carry ammunition. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 870)

Figure 50. A sketch of a Métis campsite. Notice the Red River carts next to each tipi. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, C0621)

Figure 51. Louise Erdrich. (www.eyeonbooks.com)

Figure 52. This family poses for a photo next to their tipi home. The tipi is made of tanned bison hides. In the background, notice the meat drying. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0014-033)

Figure 53. The bison was sacred to the Plains Indians. The bison was also important because it provided food, clothing, and shelter. Sport hunters, railroad workers, bison hide traders, and early homesteaders contributed to the near extinction of the bison. (www.FirstPeople.us)

Figure 54. A Sioux woman fleshing out a bison hide. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 270-108)

Figure 55. The cradleboard was used to carry a baby on the back of the mother. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0086-0692)

Figure 56. Tchung-kee game stones. Tchung-kee was a popular sport with the Mandan and Hidatsa boys and men. These stones are on exhibit at the Knife River Villages National Historic Site. (North Dakota Geological Survey)

Figure 57. A Chippewa family next to their tipi. The tipis were set up by attaching poles to make a frame, which was then covered with bison hides or birch bark. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A3462)

Figure 58. The tipi is a cone-shaped tent covered with hides. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, A0085)

Figure 59. The earthlodge is a dome-shaped home which is made of logs covered with willow branches, grass, and earth. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 60. A dog travois was used by Plains Indians to transport goods from one place to another. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 5534)

Figure 61. The bullboat was made from the hide of a bison bull. The round bullboat provided a way of transportation for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara people. (Fort Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 62. Millions of bison once roamed the prairies. The bison provided the Plains Indians with an abundant source of food and other necessary items. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 970.1 C289NL)

Figure 63. Strips of bison meat dry in the sun. The dried meat would be ground and mixed with dried fruit to make pemmican. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0300-117)

Figure 64. This parfleche is made of rawhide. It was used to store food like pemmican. (Fort Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 65. Tribal regalia is worn during powwows and other festivals. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 66. The Wahpeton Indian School was established by the U.S. government in 1904. This boarding school educated Indian children from North Dakota, northern Minnesota, and northern South Dakota. (State Historical Society of North Dakota, 0239-115)

Figure 67. Fort Berthold Community College is located in New Town, North Dakota. It was founded in 1973 and enrolls about 300 students. It is one of five tribal colleges in North Dakota. (Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 68. The Medicine Wheel is a powerful symbol showing the circle of life. It is shown here in two different forms. (Graphic by Cassie Theurer)

Figure 69. Mandan Chief Four Bears with a coup stick. (Three Affiliated Tribal Museum, Photo by Neil Howe)

Figure 70. Sweat Lodges were used as baths, or to purify the body, mind, and spirit. A frame of willow, covered with bison hide, was set up over a fireplace. Red-hot rocks were put in the fireplace, and water was poured over them, making the lodge a hot, dark, steam room. (“Plains Indians” by Christopher Davis)

Figure 71. The American bald eagle is an official symbol of the United States. It is also a sacred and respected symbol for the American Indians. (North Dakota Game and Fish Department)

Figure 72. The powwow is the oldest public festival in North America. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 73. The Eagle Staff is the traditional flag of American Indians. At powwow festivals, it is at the head of the parade to symbolize the First Nation. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 74. The United Tribes International Powwow is held each year in Bismarck, North Dakota. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 75. This is a dancer during the Grand Entry of the United Tribes International Powwow. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)

Figure 76. Senator John Hoeven takes part in the Parade of Champions at the United Tribes International Powwow. (Photo by Gwyn Herman)