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Acknowledgments

These online materials are intended to serve as a resource about the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish people, from their origin to contemporary society. Written in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, the material presents a generalized overview about the history and culture of the Three Affiliated Tribes for teachers, students, and the general public of North Dakota. This is done with the hope that readers will develop a better understanding about the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish people and their role in the history of North Dakota.

Most of the research for the development of this information was provided from several significant historical journals, traders’ papers, and ethnographic studies conducted in the early 1900s among the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara (who now call themselves Sahnish). Other resources have been made available through the work of reference staff and collections of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum, Minnesota Historical Society, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and through books and materials on the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara. Most significant are the recollections of tribal oral historians, elders, and members who shared their memories, knowledge, and wisdom.

The following is a list of those who contributed their time and knowledge in the development of this information. This list is not limited to those whose names are mentioned here, but to those people who committed their time to the first document, including those not present who believed strongly enough in preserving the history and cultures of their people.

ABOUT THIS PROGRAM:

This curriculum for The History and Culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish was originally organized by Cheryl M. Kulas, former Director of Indian Education at the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Cheryl Kulas also served as the Executive Director of the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission, 2001–2009.

In 2009, the North Dakota Studies Program and the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission collaborated to make the curriculum resources available online at North Dakota Studies.

  • Neil Howe, North Dakota Studies Program Coordinator
  • Cassie Theurer, Web Designer
  • RESEARCH/WRITERS:
  • Linda Baker, Teacher, Mandaree Public School, Mandaree, North Dakota
  • Dorreen Yellow Bird, Community Journalist, Grand Forks Herald, Grand Forks, North Dakota.
  • Cheryl M. Kulas, Executive Director of the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission, and the former Director of Indian Education at the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.
  • Greta White Calfe, Yvonne Fox, Melvina Everett, Lena Malnourie, and Rhoda M. Star, Sahnish Culture Society members, White Shield, North Dakota.
  • REVIEWERS and CONTRIBUTORS:
  • Edwin Benson, Halliday, North Dakota
  • Roger Bird Bear, Mandaree, North Dakota
  • Mark Bluestone, New Town, North Dakota
  • Candace Bridges, New Town, North Dakota
  • John Charging, New Town, North Dakota
  • Maynard Fox, New Town, North Dakota
  • Marilyn Hudson, Parshall, North Dakota
  • Edward Lone Fight, Mandaree, North Dakota
  • Adam Tony Mandan, New Town, North Dakota
  • Iris Bird Bear Obes, New Town, North Dakota
  • Curtis Young Bear, Sr., Mandaree, North Dakota
  • Sahnish Culture Society