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References

Main Text A - K

Abel, Annie Heloise. 1939. Tabeau’s Narrative of Loisel’s Expedition to the Upper Missouri. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Abel, Annie Heloise. 1932. Chardon’s Journal at Ft. Clark: 1834–1839. Pierre: Published under the auspices of Lawrence K. Fox, superintendent, Department of History, State of South Dakota.

Beckwith, Martha Warren. 1937. Mandan-Hidatsa Myths and Ceremonies. New York: American Folk Lore Society Publishers, pp. 7–13.

Bluemle, John P. 1977. The Face of North Dakota: The Geologic Story. Washburn Printing: North Dakota Geological Survey, Educational Series 11.

Boller, Henry A. 1966. Journal of a Trip to, and Residence in, the Indian Country. Manuscript. No. 2, 1858, May 22. North Dakota History, April.

Boller, Henry A. 1959. Among the Indians. Chicago.

Bowers, Alfred W. 1992. Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, reprint.

Bowers, A. W. 1950. Mandan Social Ceremonial Organizations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Brackenridge. 1904. Journal of a Voyage up the River Missouri. Performed in Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, reprinted in Vol. 6 of Early Western Travels 1748–1846, ed. Reuben G. Thwaites, 32 vols.

Bradbury, John. 1904. Travels in the Interior of America. London: Sherwood, Neeley and Jones.

Case, Rev. and Mrs. Harold W. 1977. “100 Years at Fort Berthold.” Bismarck Tribune, Bismarck, ND.

Cash, Joseph H., and Gerald W. Wolff. 1974. The Three Affiliated Tribes: Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa. Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series.

Cassidy, Frank. 1991. Aboriginal Self-Determination. Oolichan Books and the Institute for Research on Public Policy.

Catlin, George. 1973. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of North American Indians, 1841, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Catlin, George. 1989. North American Indians, Ed. Peter Matthiesen. Penguin Books.

Chardon, Francis. 1932. Chardon’s Journal at Fort Clark, 1834–1839, Annie Abel (ed.). Pierre: Published under the auspices of Lawrence K. Fox, superintendent, Department of History, State of South Dakota.

Chittenden, H.M. (n.d.)

Curtis, Edward S. 1909. The North American Indian, Vols. IV and V of twenty volumes. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Curtis, E. S. 1909. The North American Indian, the Arikara, Vol 5. Cambridge, MA: University Press.

Deland, Charles. 1906. Arikaras Part II. Pierre, SD: South Dakota Historical Collection, State Historical Society, Vol. III, News Printing Co., Aberdeen, SD.

Deland, Charles. 1908. The Aborigines of South Dakota. South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. III, Part 1, Sioux Falls: Press of Mark D. Scott, pp. 271–584.

Deland, Charles. 1908. The Aborigines of South Dakota. South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. IV, Part 2, Sioux Falls: Press of Mark D. Scott, pp. 275–727.

Denig, Edwin Thompson. 1961. Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri, John C. Ewers (ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Dollar, Clyde D. The High Plains Smallpox Epidemic of 1837–38. University of Arkansas.

Dorsey, G. A. 1904. Traditions of the Arikara. Washington.

  • Mythology of the Wichita
  • Tradition of the Skidi Pawnee

Dunley, Thomas W. 1982. Wolves for the Blue Soldiers. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Dunn, Adrian R. A. 1963. History of Old Fort Berthold. Reprinted from North Dakota History, Volume 30, No.4, October. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society of North Dakota.

Ewers, John C. 1968. Indian Life on the Upper Missouri. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, The Civilization of the American Indian Series.

Ewers, J. C. 1950. Edwin T. Denig’s Of the Arikaras.

Flandrau, Grace. (n.d.) Frontier Days Along the Upper Missouri. Great Northern Railways.

Fletcher, A. C. 1907. Arikara.

Freedman, Russell. 1991. An Indian Winter. July.

Fox, Gregory L. 1988. A Late Nineteenth Century Village of a Band of Dissident Hidatsa: The Garden Coulee Site (32W118). Lincoln, NE: Reprints in Anthropology. Vol. 37, J. & L. Reprint Company, March.

Geological History of Saskatchewan. 1989. Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History.

Gilman, Carolyn and Mary Jane Schneider. 1987. The way to Independence: Memories of a Hidatsa Indian Family, 1840–1920. Minnesota Historical Society, Museum Exhibit Series No. 3.

Gilmore, Melvin R. 1922. Prairie Smoke. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press.

Gilmore, Melvin R.,

  • Arikara Account of the Origin of Tobacco and Catching of Eagles
  • Arikara Basketry
  • The Arikara Book of Genesis
  • Arikara Commerce
  • Arikara Consolation Ceremony
  • Arikara Fish Trap
  • Arikara Household Shrine to Mother Corn
  • The Arikara Method of Preparing Dog for a Feast
  • The Arikara Tribal Temple
  • Arikara Units of Measure
  • Arikara Uses of Clay and of Other Earth Products
  • Buffalo-Skull from the Arikara
  • The Cat-tail Game of Arikara Children
  • The Coyote’s Boxelder Knife
  • Glass Bead Making by the Arikara
  • Months and Seasons of the Arikara Calendar
  • Notes of Arikara Tribal Organizations
  • Notes on Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Arikara Tribe
  • Origin of the Arikara Silver Berry Drink
  • Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region

Haynes, John J. 1987. The Forgotten People. Exeter, England: A Wheaton and Co., Ltd.

Holder, Preston. 1970. The Hoe and the Horse on the Plains. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Hyde, George E. 1951. The Mystery of the Arikaras. North Dakota History.

Hyde, George E. 1959. Indians of the High Plains: from the Prehistoric Period to the Coming of the Europeans. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Hyde, George E. 1962. Indians of the Woodlands. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Hyde, George E. 1951. Pawnee Indians. University of Oklahoma Press.

Kappler, Charles J. 1971. Indian affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 5. New York: AMS Press.

Main Text L - Z

LaVerendrye, Le Chevalier de. 1927. Journals and Letters of Pierre Gaith de Vereness de La Verendrye and His Sons. Toronto: Burpee Publications of Champlain Society.

Lawson, Michael L. 1982. Dammed Indians: the Pick-Sloan Plan and the Missouri River Sioux, 1944–1980. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Lewis, M. and W. Clark. 1893. History of the Expedition, Lewis and Clark, ed., Coues, Vol. 3. New York: Francis P. Harper.

Libby, Orin G. 1908. Typical Villages of the Mandans, Arikara and Hidatsa in the Missouri Valley, North Dakota. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society of North Dakota. Vol. II.

Libby, Orin G. 1920. The Arikara Narrative of the Campaign Against the Hostile Dakotas. The Rio Grande Press, Inc.

Loundsberry. 1917. Bismarck: Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Vol. I.

Lowie, Robert H. 1954. Indians of the Plains. Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press.

Typical Villages of the Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa in the Missouri Valley, 1908.

Lowie, R.H. 1915. Societies of the Arikara Indians.

Lowie, R.H. 1917. Notes on the Social Organization and Customs of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Crow Indians. New York: Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXI, Part I.

Macgowan, E. S. 1942. The Arikara Indians.

Mandan, Arthur. (n.d.) First Creator and Lone Man: Mandan Origin Story. Manuscript written and related by his mother. Manuscript loaned by the Reverend Peter Fehrenbach of the Catholic Mission at Elbowoods, ND.

Mason, Russell E. 1997. Address before the 55th Legislative Assembly State of North Dakota. January 8.

Matthews, Washington. 1977. Ethnography and Philogy of the Hidatsa Indians, 1877. New York: Reprint of USGS, Publication No. 7. Johnson Reprint Corporation.

Mattison, Ray H., ed. 1966. The Letters of Henry A. Boller, Upper Missouri River Fur Trader. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society.

Maximilian, Prince of Wied Neuwied. 1906. Travels in the Interior of North America, ed. R. G. Thwaites, Early Western Travels. Vols. 22, 23, 24. Cleveland, OH: A. H. Clark.

Meyer, Roy W. 1977. The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Morgan, Dale L. 1953. Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Morgan, L. H. 1871. The Stone and Bone Implements of the Arikarees: Annual Report of the Regents of the University of New York State, pp 25–46.

Nasatir, A. P. 1952. Before Lewis and Clark. St. Louis Historical Documents Foundation, Vol. I and II.

Jocques D’Eglise on the Upper Missouri 1791–1795, and Spanish Exploration of the Upper Missouri. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1927. Before Lewis and Clark, Document Illustrating the History of the Missouri 1785–1804, 2 Vols. St. Louis: St Louis Historical Documents Foundation, 1952.

Nicholes, Roger L. Backdrop for Disaster: Causes of the Arikara wars of 1823. South Dakota History.

North Dakota History: Journal of the Northern Plains. 1968. Volume 35, Nos. 3 and 4. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society of North Dakota.

O’Brien, Sharon. 1989. American Indian Tribal Governments. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Ogden, Eloise, “Groundbreaking Health Care,” Minot Daily News, November 11, 2008. Retrieved from the Internet: http://www.minotdailynews.com/page/content.detail/id/520988.html

Pfaller, Louis, O.S.B. 1962. Father DeSmet in Dakota. Richardton, ND: Assumption Abbey Press.

Prucha, Frances Paul. 1990. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Prucha, Frances P. 1975. Documents of United States Indian Policy. Ramenofsky, Ann, Vectors of Death.

Robinson, Elwyn B. 1966. History of North Dakota. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Roe, F. G. The North American Buffalo. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Roe, Frank Gilbert. 1955. The Indian and the Horse. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Rogers, J. Daniel. 1990. Objects of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Ronda, James P. 1984. Lewis and Clark Among the Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Sapir, E. 1916. Time perspective in Aboriginal American Culture. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Geological Survey, Memoirs, Anthropological Series, No. 13, pp. 1–85, Government Printing Bureau.

Schlesier, Karl H., ed. 1994. Plains Indians, AD 500–1500: The Archaeological Past of Historic Groups. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Schneider, Mary Jane. 1994. North Dakota Indians: An Introduction. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Schulenberg, Raymond F. 1956. The Indians of North Dakota. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society of North Dakota, North Dakota History, Volume 23, No. 4, July–October.

Shane, Ralph M. (n.d.) Fort Berthold History. New Town, ND: Fort Berthold Museum.

Shippee, Lester. (n.d.). Trudeau’s Description of the Upper Missouri, M V H R, Vol. VIII. University of Minnesota.

Shure, Stephen William. 1964. The Arikara Indian. University of California: Master’s Thesis.

Spicer, Edward H., ed. 1961. Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Stewart, Frank H. 1974. Mandan and Hidatsa Villages in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Journal of the Plains Conference: Plains Anthropologist, Volume 19, Number 66, Part 1, pp. 287–301.

Storer, Dr. John. 1969. Plains Anthropology. Journal of the Plains Conference, August.

Swanton, John R. 1952. The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Tabeau, P. A. 1939. Tabeau Narrative of Loisel’s Expedition to the Upper Missouri. By Annie Heloise Abel and translated, by Rose Abel Wright, Norman, Oklahoman.

Three Affliliated Tribes—Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara Nation, Tribal Chairman Profile. Retrieved from the Internet: http://www.mhanation.com/chairman.

Trudeau, J. B. 1914. South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. VII.

Tyler, S. Lyman. 1973. A History of Indian Policy. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.

Tyrrell, J. B., ed. 1916. David Thompson’s Narrative of His Explorations in Western America: 1784–1812. Toronto. The Champlain Society.

Utter, Jack. 1993. American Indians: Answers to Today’s Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Company, August.

Varnum, Charles A. 1982. Custer’s Chief of Scouts. Ed. John M. Carroll. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Wood, W. Raymond. 1967. An Interpretation of Mandan Culture History. Number 39 in the inter-Agency Archeological Salvage Program, River Basin Survey Papers. Robert L. Stephenson (ed). Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 198. Washington: US Government Printing Office.

Weid-Neuweid, Maximillian Alexander Phillipp. 1843. Travels in the Interior of North America.

Wilkinson, Charles F. 1987. American Indians, Time, and the Law. Yale University Press: Native Societies in a Modern Constitutional Democracy.

Will, G. F. 1930. Arikara Ceremonials. North Dakota Historical Quarterly, Vol IV.

Will, George F. and George E. Hyde. 1917. Corn Among the Indians of the Upper Missouri. St. Louis.

Weitzner, Bella, ed., 1934. The Hidatsa Earth Lodge—Gilbert L. Wilson. New York: The American Museum of Natural History. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, XXXIII, Part V.

Wood, W. Raymond. 1967. An Interpretation of Mandan Culture History. Number 39 in the Inter-Agency Archeological Salvage Program, River Basin Surveys Papers. Robert L. Stephenson (ed). Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Ethnology. Bulletin 198. Washington: US Government Printing Office.

Wood, W. Raymond. 1980. The Origins of the Hidatsa Indians: A Review of Ethnohitorical and Traditional Data. Lincoln: National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, pp. 8–11.

Traditional Chiefs

  1. O’Brien, Sharon. 1989. American Indian Tribal Governments. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  2. Bowers, Alfred W. 1992. Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization. (reprint). Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, p. 38.
  3. Ibid., p. 27.
  4. Ibid., p. 33.
  5. Ibid., p. 42.
  6. Ibid., p. 38.
  7. Hyde. 1804. Vol. 18.
  8. Ronda, James P. 1984. Lewis and Clark among the Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, pp. 69.
  9. Ibid., p. 69.
  10. Ibid., p. 85.
  11. Loundsberry. 1906. Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Bismarck, North Dakota, p. 436.
  12. Ronda. 1984. PP. 69, 79, 246, 248.
  13. Loundsberry. 1917. P. 63.
  14. Loundsberry. 1901. P. 434.
  15. Fort Berthold Community College. 1996. Tribal Chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish. Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page. Stevens, Michael, ed.
  16. Hall, C.L. 1906. Bismarck, ND: Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Vol. 1, pp. 442, August 13.
  17. Bowers. 1992. reprint. P. 245.
  18. Mandan, Adam Tony. 1997. Verbal Communication, April 21. Walker, Tillie, 2001. Document Researcher.
  19. Tappen, John E. 1908. Bismarck, ND: Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Vol. II, pp. 465–469.
  20. Case, Rev. and Mrs. Harold W. 1977. 100 years at Ft. Berthold: The History of Fort Berthold Indian Mission, 1876–1976, pp. 132–136.
  21. Ibid., p. 133.; Loundsberry. 1906. Bismarck, ND: Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismarck, North Dakota, p. 436.
  22. Ibid., p. 435.
  23. Bowers. 1992. Pp. 375–397.
  24. Ibid., p. 380.
  25. Loundsberry. 1917. P. 64.
  26. Bowers. 1992. Pp. 38, 42, 471–473.
  27. Ibid., pp. 37, 40, 41.
  28. Loundsberry. 1906. P. 435.
  29. Ibid., p. 436.
  30. Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Times. August 5, 1994. (Pehriska Ruhpa).
  31. Hall, C.L. 1906 . Vol. 1, pp. 441, August 13.
  32. Bowers, p. 42.
  33. Bowers, p. 245; Meyers, (1997).
  34. Hall, C.L. 1906. Pp. 442.
  35. Ibid., p. 443., Case, (1977). P. 190.
  36. Meyers, Roy C. 1977 . P. 282, n. 26.
  37. Richards, Thomas. 1900 . [Communication in] Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1890.
  38. Bowers. (1965); Malouf (1963); Meyer, Roy C. (1977); p. 292. Grady to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, December 10, 1894:NARS, RG 75, LR: Crow-Flies-High relinquished his chieftainship to Long Bear in 1894 and died six years later: Malouf, (1963). “Crow-Flies-High,” pp. 157, 58: Gifford 1888, p. 415. Fox, Gregory L. (1988). Reprinted in Anthropology, Vo. 37, a late Nineteenth Century Village of a Band of Dissident Hidatsa: The Garden Coulee site (32w118). J. & L. Reprint Company.
  39. Bowers, p. 245.
  40. Bowers, p. 45.
  41. Ibid., p. 403.
  42. Ibid., p. 437.
  43. Bureau of Ethnology Bulletin 185, Xosh-gah Band Village at Ft. Buford, River Basin Survey Papers #29, p. 149.
  44. Bowers, p. 437.
  45. Biography of Old Dog, Four Bears Museum.
  46. Sylvester, C. 1952, October 9. “Bust of Dragswolf Unveiled Today at Elbowoods.” New Town News, p. 3.; Cash, Joseph H. and Wolff, Gerald W. (1974). (The Three Affiliated Tribes: Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa). Indian Tribal Series, Phoenix, Publishers. Sahnish Chiefs.
  47. Gilmore, M.R. 1924. The Arikara Book of Genesis. 1984 with adaptations. Everett, Melvine (1993). Sahnish elder/historian; Sahnish Culture Society (1993).
  48. Hyde, George. 1804. Vol. 18.
  49. Shure, Stephen William. 1964. The Arikara Indian. Master’s Thesis, University of California.
  50. Kapplers, Charles, L., Ed. 1904. Reprint 1972. Indian treaties—1778–1883. pp. 594–596. Sept, 17, 1851. 11 Stats.; Little Cherries, Francois and Louis-Joseph de la Verendrye Journal, p. 230. Charles E. DeLand, (1914). Pierre, S.D: South Dakota Historical Collection, State Publication. Vol. VII.
  51. Reitz, Robert and Yerrington, C.M. Three Tribes Long Loyal Friends of Whites. June 25, 1954. New Town News.
  52. Nabohkov, Peter. 1994. Letter from Peter Naboukov to Gerard Baker, 5, January, 1995. Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. The pipe of Son-of-the-Star had been on exhibit at the Kansas City Public Library Museum from 1918 to 1938 and subsequently went into private holding from 1938 to 1995. After that time, the pipes were placed at the Pipestone National Monument until passage of the Native American Graves Repatriation Act when the pipes were returned to the Bear family. Two ceremonial pipes are held by the family and are handed down from father to son. Floyd Bear’s half-brother held the pipe for a time, and the other pipe is with the White Bear family.
  53. Case, Rev. 100 Years at Fort Berthold.
  54. Kapplers, Charles, L. Ed. 1904. 1972 Reprint. Indian treaties—1778–1883. pp. 594–596. Sept., 17, 1851. 11 Stats., p. 749. Koun-hei-ti-shan—Bear Iron Chief. Correct spelling KuunNx tee shan—Bear Chief.
  55. Libby, O.G. 1876. The Arikara Narrative of the Campaign Against the Hostile Dakotas. June. North Dakota Historical Collection, Bismarck, ND. 1920; De Trobriand, Regis (1951) Military Life in Dakota. Edited by Lucile M. Kane.; Star, Rhoda M.—Document Researcher, Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield School, White Shield, ND.; White Bear, Pauline, Great-grand-daughter of Chief Sitting Bear, White Shield, ND; Pearl Felix Howard—Great granddaughter of Ree Scout Little Sioux, White Shield, ND.
  56. Bi-atch-tah-wetch, Eagle Young Joseph. Correct Sahnish spelling—pi’aats tawiicA—Young Chosen Eagle.; Melvina Fox Everett, Sahnish Oral Historian and Langage Instructor. White Shield School.
  57. Meredith, Loretta. 1998. Interview. August. Great Grandaughter of Floyd Bear.
  58. Everett, Melvina Three Fox—Sahnish Oral Historian and Language Instructor, Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield, ND.; Star, Rhoda, Document Researcher, Sahnish Cultural Society; Fort Berthold Indian Agency, Individual History Cards, Tribal Enrollment Office, New Town, ND.; Breuer, Almit, Descendant of Chief White Shield I, Great-great-great-grandson. White Shield, ND.; The Treaty with the Arikara Tribe, 1825; Agreement at Fort Berthold, 1866; Taylor, J.H, (1932) Frontier and Indian Lives. Valley City, ND.; Myers, John (1976), the Saga of Hugh Glass, Nebraska Press; De Trobriand, Regis (1951). Military Life in North Dakota. Edited by Lucile Kane.
  59. “Harry Gillette, 80, Arikara Chief, Dies.” Obituary. March 13, 1947. Washburn Leader.
  60. Star, Rhoda M. Document Researcher, Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield School, White Shield, ND.
  61. “Bear, Robert Jr.” 1979. McLean County Independent.
  62. Eagle Feather: Leavenworth Journal; Moulton, Gary E. Ed. 1984. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Vol. 3, p. 156. April 6, 1805. August 25.

Contemporary Leaders

ARTHUR MANDAN

Indian Tribes Gather for Last Celebration. (1953, June 25, Thursday. New Town News. Anna Mandan Obituary (1983, February 28).

Mandan, 73, Indian Leader, Dies in Storm; Body Found. (1955, March 24). New Town News.

Walker, Tillie, Document Researcher, Mandaree, North Dakota.

MARTIN LEVING

Martin Levings Obituary, (1974, October 29). New Town News. Legion Post Names Officers at New Town. (1962, April 4, Saturday). Minot Daily News.

ALBERT SIMPSON

Hultgren, Mary Lou, and Fairbanks—Molin, Paulette North Dakota History Journal of the Northern Plains (1994) Ft. Berthold Students at Hampton Institute Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 20–33.; Rhoda Starr, Document Researcher, Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield, ND.

PETER BEAUCHAMP II

Cory, Bob (1982, April 3). Peter Beauchamp: “Living With ‘Savages,’ Tumbling Around These Prairies.” Minot Daily News.

Hall, Ina Beauchamp, in Case et. al. (1977). “100 Years at Fort Berthold,” Bismarck Tribune, Bismarck, ND., p. 47). Starr, Rhoda, M. 1999, Document researcher. Sahnish Culture Society, White Shield, ND.; Enrollment Records, Ft. Berthold Agency , Bureau of Indian Affairs, New Town, ND. McLean County Heritage Book;

Beauchamp of Parshall Dies at 83 (1960, August 29). New Town News.

MARTIN CROSS

Bureau of Indian Affairs, Ft. Berthold Agency, Enrollment Record, Old Dog, pp. 17–23.

Cross Heads N.D. Tribes New Council. (1954, May 17). Minot Daily News.

Indian Congress Retains Cross as Councilman. (1954, November 22). Minot Daily News.

Martin Cross, Indian Leader Dies At Home, (1964, April 2). Minot Daily News.

Marilyn Hudson, Curator, Three Affiliated Tribes Museum, New Town, ND.

GEORGE GILLETTE

Gillette Recalls Contract Signed ‘With Heavy Heart’. (1973, May 18). Minot Daily News.

The Long and the Short of It. (1958, Feb.) New Town News.

George Gillette Obituary (1985, Oct. 6). Minot Daily News.

CARL WHITMAN JR.

Whitman to seek Top Post (1963, Sept. 9). Minot Daily News.

He’s trying to help Indians help Themselves. (1970, April 1). Bismarck Tribune.

Salter, Peter, (1995, January 20, p. 1A). Fort Berthold loses “elder statesman.” Bismarck Tribune.

JAMES HALL

James Hall Sr. (1977, October 20, p. 6). Minot Daily News.

Tribes name James Hall as Chairman. (1958, September 8, p. 7). Minot Daily News.

ROBERT FOX

Robert Fox wins tribal election. (1960, September 30). Minot Daily News.

Reverend Robert Fox. (1982, February 12). Minot Daily News.

AUGUST LITTLE SOLDIER

Willena Little Soldier Obituary. January 27, 1984. New Town News.

Scheer, Bob. Indians Stress Need of Some Home Access Roads. (1967, August 12). Minot Daily News.

Fort Berthold One of 15 For Priorities. (1968, February 5). Minot Daily News.

Indians Trying to Alleviate Problems. (1968, May 12). Minot Daily News.

Seiser, Skip. Citizens Wondering What New Plant Will Do To Beulah. (1981, October 21, p. 1). Minot Daily News.

Bennett, Piet. Indian Head of Church of Christ. (1971, June 28). Minot Daily News. Rhoda Starr, Document Researcher, Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield, ND.

VINCENT MALNOURIE

Delegation to Give Support for Knife River Legislation. (1973, November 2.) The Bismarck Tribune. Malnourie is re-elected as chairman. (1973, January 18). Minot Daily News. Cash, Joseph H. and Wolff, Gerald W. (1974). The Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa). Indian Tribal Series, Phoenix. Malnourie Rites on Wednesday, (1979, February 20). Minot Daily News, Lena Malnourie, 1997.

RALPH WELLS

Case, Reverend and Mrs. Harold (1977). 100 years at Fort Berthold. The History of Fort Berthold Indian Mission, 1876–1976, pp. 421-422.

NATHAN LITTLE SOLDIER

Nathan Little Soldier (1980, May 21). Minot Daily News. Selection is planned for Indians to vote on Power Plant Fate. (August 8, 1971). Minot Daily News.

ROSE CROW FLIES HIGH

Copeland, Joseph Tribal Election Features Two Veteran Politicians, (1974, November 19). Minot Daily News.

Indian Leaders To Take Part in Observance Of Bicentennial (1976, May 8). Minot Daily News.

Publication for Women to Be Out in October. (1977, August 6.) Minot Daily News.

Rose Crow Flies High, Obituary. (1994 January 19.) The Lakota Times.

AUSTIN GILLETTE

Turosak, Greg. (1981, October 23). Charting a Path for the Future. Bismarck Tribune. Austin Gillette, Campaign publication, 1994. Personal Communication, Austin Gillette, 1998.

ALYCE SPOTTED BEAR

Tribal Votes Tallied At New Town on 2 Constitutional Amendments. (1985, March 12, p. 2). Minot Daily News.

Baker, Laurie, Congress Called to solve Fort Berthold Question. (1983, June 15, Tuesday). Minot Daily News.

Ex-Tribal Leader’s Effort Succeeds in Settlement. (1992, November 5). Bismarck Tribune. Alyce Spotted Bear, personal communication, June, 1997.

EDWARD LONE FIGHT

Personal Communication, 1995, July 11.

WILBUR WILKINSON

Personal Communication, 1995, July 18.

Settlement marks the beginning to tribe issue. (1991, May 5). Bismarck Tribune.

RUSSELL MASON

Personal communication, September 1995 and November 1998.

TEX G. HALL

Electronic communication—Biography of Tex Hall, Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation Tribal Programs, 2001, August 29, “Chairman Tex Hall Announces He will run for NCAI President this fall and Reacts to BIA Proposed Reorganization of Trust Functions.” (2001, November 23). Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Times.

Photo Credits

TRADITIONAL MANDAN CHIEFS

  • SHAHAKA/SHEHEKE (Shehek shote)
  • Drawing of Sheheke, Mandan Chief. Drawingby Saint-Memin, Artist. 1807. Ellen G. Miles collection courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, 1994, Figure 7:17.
  • THE FOUR BEARS
  • Photo by Neil Howe, Courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • BEAR ON THE WATER
  • Photograph of Bear on the Water, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Volume #1, 1906, page 44.
  • RED BUFFALO COW
  • Photograph of Red Roan Buffalo Cow, Mandan Chief, courtesy of the collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Collection #410-66.
  • BAD GUN
  • Photograph of Bad Gun or Rushing After the Eagle, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • HENRY SITTING CROW
  • Photograph of Henry Sitting Crow, Mandan Chief, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, in Case, 1977, page 132.

TRADITIONAL HIDATSA CHIEFS

  • POOR WOLF
  • Photograph of Poor Wolf, principal chief of his village. Photo courtesy of Case, 1977, page 190.
  • CROW FLIES HIGH
  • Photograph of Crow Flies High, Chief of the Xosh-gah Band of Hidatsa at Fort Buford, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, portrait by OS Graff, 1875.
  • LONG BEAR
  • Photograph of Long Bear, Hidatsa Chief, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • BULLS EYE
  • Photograph of Bulls Eye, leader after Long Bear, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • BLACK HAWK
  • Photograph of Black Hawk, second chief with Crow Flies High at Fort Buford, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • FOUR DANCES
  • Photograph of Four Dances, Four Dancers, son of Crow Flies High, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum, and the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • OLD DOG or LONG TIME DOG
  • Photograph of Old Dog, or Long Time Dog, Hidatsa Chief, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, Collection #86-570, Fred Olson Photographer.
  • DRAGS WOLF
  • Photograph Drags Wolf, Son of Crow Flies High, Drags Wolf, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

TRADITIONAL SAHNISH CHIEFS

  • SON OF STAR (RUSHING BEAR)
  • Photograph of Son-of-Star, son of Chief Star, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • SITTING BEAR
  • Photograph of Sitting Bear, son of Son-of-Star, courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • FLOYD BEAR
  • Photograph of Floyd Bear, son of Sitting Bear, courtesy of the Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield, North Dakota.
  • HARRY GILLETTE—WHITE SHIELD II
  • White Shield, Harry Gillette, grandson of Son-of-the-Star. Photograph courtesy of the Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield, North Dakota and the State Historical Society of North Dakota.
  • ROBERT “BOBBY” BEAR, JR.
  • Photograph of Robert Bear, Jr., Swift Hawk, last hereditary chief of the Awahu Sahnish. Photograph courtesy of the Sahnish Cultural Society, White Shield, North Dakota.

CONTEMPORARY TRIBAL LEADERS

  • ARTHUR MANDAN
  • Photograph of Arthur Mandan, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • MARTIN LEVINGS
  • Photograph of Martin Levings, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • PETER BEAUCHAMP, JR.
  • Photograph of Peter Beauchamp, Jr., courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • MARTIN CROSS
  • Photograph of Martin Cross, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • GEORGE GILLETTE
  • Photograph of George Gillette, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • CARL WHITMAN, JR.
  • Photograph of Carl Whitman, Jr., courtesy of the Carl Whitman Family.
  • JAMES HALL
  • Photograph of James Hall, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • ROBERT FOX
  • Photograph of Robert Fox, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • AUGUST LITTLE SOLDIER
  • Photograph of August Little Soldier, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • VINCENT MALNOURIE
  • Photograph of Vincent Malnourie, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • RALPH WELLS, JR.
  • Photograph of Ralph Wells, Jr., courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • NATHAN LITTLE SOLDIER
  • Photograph of Nathan Little Soldier, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • ROSE CROW FLIES HIGH
  • Photograph of Rose Crow Flies High, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • AUSTIN GILLETTE
  • Photograph of Austin Gillette, courtesy of the Minot Daily News.
  • ALYCE SPOTTED BEAR
  • Photograph of Alyce Spotted Bear, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • EDWARD LONE FIGHT
  • Photograph of Edward Lone Fight, courtesy of the Public Broadcasting Corporation of Nebraska.
  • WILBUR WILKINSON
  • Photograph of Wilbur Wilkinson, courtesy of the Bismarck Tribune.
  • RUSSELL “BUDDY” MASON
  • Photograph of Russell Mason, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.
  • TEX G. HALL
  • Photograph of Tex Hall, courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.