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Centennial Poem

  • One hundred years ago today
  • Our people gathered here to pray
  • They’d built a little church of Gold
  • In which to pray and worship God
  • T’was not till 1882
  • That Father Malo was passing through
  • He stopped and blessed the families here
  • Saying he’d return another year
  • In 1885 he did come back
  • And made his home in the little shack
  • This time he said that he would stay
  • Thanking God they knelt to pray
  • Twelve years here he spent teaching
  • Absolving sins, baptizing, and preaching
  • Then Father Malo had a plan
  • To name this church for good St. Ann
  • He told the people of her love
  • Her many graces from above
  • Soon they too became aware
  • Of St. Ann’s powers and in her care
  • They placed their sorrows and their fears
  • Their faith increased throughout the years
  • The Novena to her first began
  • On the Feast day of St. Ann
  • In 1885 the 26th of July
  • 100 years has since gone by
  • Many people came from far
  • With horse and buggy before the car
  • They brought their clothes and food supplies
  • At night they slept beneath the skies
  • They came for prayer and adoration
  • Nine days of worship and celebration
  • They brought the sorrowing and the weak
  • Healing and comfort they did seek
  • And as they prayed before God’s altar
  • The weak and sick no longer falter
  • Those with ears so full of pain
  • Blessings and graces they did gain
  • And now in 1985
  • This undying faith is still alive
  • We still invoke her intercession
  • And honor her in a procession
  • St. Ann has been our loyal friend
  • Watching over us to the end

The poem was written in honor of St. Ann’s Centennial by Stella Davis.

Nanabosho Receives the Pipe of Peace

Nanabosho was born of a human mother and a spirit father, Epingishmook (The West). His grandmother, Nokomis, raised him. Although he loved his grandmother very much, he grew up feeling his mother would have lived if his father had not abandoned them.

When he became a young man, Nanabosho gave into his hurt feelings and went to find Epingishmook to avenge his mother’s death. When he found Epingishmook, he called out his name and told him that he had come to challenge him. Epingishmook came forward and they fought. Nanabosho knew that the only way to hurt Epingishmook was to wound him with flint. As the battle raged on, Nanabosho used the flint to wound Epingishmook. Blood flowed from his wound. Epingishmook was alarmed and he stopped fighting. He knew Nanabosho was part spirit and had special powers. He took a pipe from his pouch and he gave it to Nanabosho. “This is the Pipe of Peace,” he told Nanabosho. “Take it to the Anishinaubag to use as an emblem of peace and goodwill.” Nanabosho took the pipe to the Anishinaubag. This is how the Chippewa got the Pipe of Peace.

Legend of How the Chippewa Got the Four Seasons

Nanabosho and the Winter Giant

Many years ago, the country got cold. So cold that snow stayed on the ground all year around. Ice formed. Ice and snow were everywhere. Plants stopped growing. Some great mystery was happening. The sun just couldn’t seem to warm up the world.

The Chippewa were suffering. They could not enjoy the foods they were accustomed to. The plants didn’t grow. The animals were sparse and lean. Ceremonies performed for the purpose of bringing warmer weather led the people to seek Nanabosho’s intercession. “The cold is coming from the north,” Nanabosho stated. “I wonder why?” The elders and spiritual leaders held council with Nanabosho where they presented him with tobacco and asked him for help. Prayer ceremonies led Nanbosho to understand that he had to travel north to get the answers.

The whole village turned out to help him pack for his journey. Special songs were sung to give him strength. Special prayers were offered to ask for help from Kitchi Manito to help him on his voyage. Tribal members brought him warm clothing, food, and warm encouragement. Early one morning, several days after the council meeting, Nanabosho waved to the tribal members and set out to find answers about the cold weather. He felt the crisp, cold wind blow against his face as he traveled further and further north toward the cold howling wind. The further north he got, the colder it seemed to get. He met a man. The man opened his mouth to speak, but there was no voice. There was only the sound of ice chunks falling to the ground. Nanabosho pushed on. He walked for days and just when he thought he might freeze to death, he saw something in the horizon. It was hugh. As he approached the large ice man, he saw icicles coming from his eyes, nose, and mouth. He continued to blow and the wind howled. Ice covered everything. It was cold! Suddenly the giant ice man spotted Nanabosho and screamed at him in the voice of a howling wind, “Who are you?” “How dare you come into my territory without permission!”

Nanabosho tried to speak. His voice cracked. Ice chips fell from his lips. He tried again. This time he made a sound. “..i..i..I am Nanabosho. I was sent by the Chippewa.” Shivering, he went on to say, “They are suffering in their homes because they are short on food and medicine. Some are sick. Others are hungry. The winter is too long. The plants grow. Food and medicine are growing short.”

“What do you want me to do about it?” asked the Winter Giant. “I am here doing my job. I love the ice and snow. I am making plenty for everyone. Don’t complain.”

Nanabosho, realizing that he did not have a chance to convince the Winter Giant that he should stop decided to try something else. “I have been walking for many days,” began Nanagosho. “I am tired and hungry.”

“I can’t help that!” “I didn’t invite you,” said the Winter Giant.

Nanabosho put down his back pack. “Do you mind if I eat something before I journey back to Chippewa land?” asked Nanabosho.

“I don’t care what you do, as long as you don’t bother me,” said the Winter Giant.

Nanabosho took some dried meat, turnips, and other vegetables out of his back pack. He made a small fire and began to make some stew. The Winter Giant watched from the corner of his glassy eye.

“What are you doing?” he asked Nanabosho.

“I’m fixing some stew. Would you like some?”

“No, thank you!” roared the Winter Giant.

Nanabosho began to smack his lips as he ate. The stew warmed his body.

The Winter Giant, taken in by the pleasure on Nanabusho’s face, got curious.

“Maybe I’ll take just a little taste,” said the Winter Giant.

Nanabosho went over and gave him a taste of the warm soup.

“Delicious!” roared the Winter Giant. “Can I have more?”

Nanabosho began to feed the Winter Giant the hot soup. As the Winter Giant ate, he began to melt. But, the soup was so good that he could not stop. Soon, a weak voice said, “Nanabosho, you have made some delicious soup, and I have eaten too much. I am small and weak now. I need a nap.”

The Winter Giant lay down. Nanabosho packed up his back pack and started south. He could hear the Winter Giant snoring as he left. A day or two into his journey home, the sun came out and the weather began to warm. He walked past the spot where he met the man on his journey north. He heard voices. He listened closely and he found the ice chunks were melting that had fallen form the man’s mouth and words were coming out of the ice. “It’s cold!” said the ice chunks!

When Nanabosho reached the village, the people had a feast prepared for him. They were pleased that Nanabosho had helped to bring back Spring at last.

This is how we got rid of the glaciers that covered our land many, many years ago.

Now, we have the four seasons because each winter, Nanabosho goes north to feed hot soup to the Winter Giant. When he melts away, we have Spring and Summer. When he wakes, he begins to grow and get colder until he blows ice and snow. This is when Nanabosho packs his bag and travels north to feed soup to the Winter Giant. (ODJ16 Storyteller, Oral History)

Old Crossing Treaty

Treaty with the Chippewa—Red Lake and Pembina Bands, 1863

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River, in the State of Minnesota, on the second day of October, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-three, between the United States of America, by their commissioners, Alexander Ramsey and Ashley C. Morrill, agent for the Chippewa Indians, and the Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewas; by their chiefs, head-men, and warriors.

ARTICLE 1

The peace and friendship now existing between the United States and the Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians shall be perpetual.

ARTICLE 2

The said Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians do hereby cede, sell, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to all the lands now owned and claimed by them in the State of Minnesota and in the Territory of Dakota within the following described boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the point where the international boundary between the United States and the British possessions intersects the shore of the Lake of the Woods; thence in a direct line southwesterly to the head of Thief River; thence down the main channel of said Thief River to its mouth on the Red Lake River; thence in a southeasterly direction, in a direct line toward the head of Wild Rice River, to the point where such line would intersect the northwestern boundary of a tract ceded to the United States by a treaty concluded at Washington on the 22nd day of February, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-five, with the Mississippi, Pillager, and Lake Winnebigoshish bands of Chippewa Indians; thence along the said boundary-line of the said cession to the mouth of Wild Rice River; thence up the main channel of the Red River to the mouth of the Shayenne; thence up the main channel of the Shayenne River to Poplar Grove; thence in a direct line to the Place of Stumps, otherwise called Lake Chicot; thence in a direct line to the head of the main branch of Salt River; thence in a direct line due north to the point where such line would intersect the international boundary aforesaid; thence eastwardly along said boundary to the place of beginning.

ARTICLE 3

In consideration of the foregoing cession, the United States agree to pay to the said Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians the following sums, to wit: Twenty thousand dollars per annum for twenty years; the said sum to be distributed among the Chippewa Indians of the said bands in equal amounts per capita, and for this purpose an accurate enumeration and enrollment of the members of the respective bands and families shall be made by the officers of the United States: Provided, That so much of this sum as the President of the United States shall direct, not exceeding five thousand dollars per year, may be reserved from the above sum, and applied to agriculture, education, and the purchase of goods, powder, lead, etc., for their use, and to such other beneficial purposes, calculated to promote the prosperity and happiness of the said Chippewa Indians, as he may prescribe.

ARTICLE 4

And in further consideration of the foregoing cession, and of their promise to abstain from such acts in future, the United States agree that the said Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians shall not be held liable to punishment for past offences. And in order to make compensation to the injured parties for the depredations committed by the said Indians on the goods of certain British and American traders at the mouth of the Red Lake River, and for exactions forcibly levied by them on the proprietors of the steamboat plying on the Red River, and to enable them to pay their just debts, the United States agree to appropriate the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, it being understood and agreed that the claims of individuals for damages or debt under this article shall be ascertained and audited, in consultation with the chiefs of said bands, by a commissioner or commissioners appointed by the President of the United States; furthermore, the sum of two thousand dollars shall be expended for powder, lead, twine, or such other beneficial purposes as the chiefs may request, to be equitably distributed among the said bands at the first payment: Provided, That no part of the sum of one hundred thousand dollars shall be appropriated or paid to make compensation for damages or for the payment of any debts owing from said Indians until the said commissioner or commissioners shall report each case, with the proofs thereof, to the Secretary of the Interior, to be submitted to Congress, with his opinion thereon, for its action; and that, after such damages and debts shall have been paid, the residue of said sum shall be added to the annuity funds of said Indians, to be divided equally upon said annuities.

ARTICLE 5

To encourage and aid the chiefs of said bands in preserving order and inducing, by their example and advice, the members of their respective bands to adopt the habits and pursuits of civilized life, there shall be paid to each of the said chiefs annually, out of the annuities of the said bands, a sum no exceeding one hundred and fifty dollars, to be determined by their agents according to their respective merits. And for the better promotion of the above objects, a further sum of five hundred dollars shall be paid at the first payment to each of the said chiefs to enable him to build for himself a house. Also, the sum of five thousand dollars shall be appropriated by the United States for cutting out a road from Leach Lake to Red Lake.

ARTICLE 6

The President shall appoint a board of visitors, to consist of not less than two nor more than three persons, to be selected from such Christian denominations as he may designate, whose duty it shall be to attend at all annuity payments of the said Chippewa Indians, to inspect their field and other improvements, and to report annually thereon on or before the first day of November, and also as to the qualifications and moral deportment of all persons residing upon the reservation under the authority of law; and they shall receive for their services five dollars a day for the time actually employed, and ten cents per mile for travelling expenses: Provided, That no one shall be paid in any one year for more than twenty day’s service or for more than three hundred mile’s travel.

ARTICLE 7

The laws of the United States now in force, or that may hereafter be enacted, prohibiting the introduction and sale of spirituous liquors in the Indian country, shall be in full force and effect throughout the country hereby ceded until otherwise directed by Congress or the President of the United States.

ARTICLE 8

In further consideration of the foregoing cession, it is hereby agreed that the United States shall grant to each male adult half-breed or mixed-blood who is related by blood to the said Chippewas of the said Red Lake or Pembina bands who has adopted the habits and customs of civilized life, and who is a citizen of the United States, a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres of land, to be selected at his option, within the limits of the tract of country hereby ceded to the United States, on any land not previously occupied by actual settlers or covered by prior grants, the boundaries thereof to be adjusted in conformity with the lines of the official surveys when the same shall be made, and with the laws and regulations of the United States affecting the location and entry of the same: Provided, That no scrip shall be issued under the provisions of this article, and no assignments shall be made of any right, title, or interest at law or in equity until a patent shall issue, and no patent shall be issued until due proof of five year’s actual residence and cultivation, as required by the act entitled “An act to secure homesteads on the public domain.”

ARTICLE 9

Upon the urgent request of the Indians, parties to this treaty, there shall be set apart from the tract hereby ceded a reservation of (640) six hundred and forty acres near the mouth of Thief River for the chief “Moose Dung,” and a like reservation of (640) six hundred and forty acres for the chief “Red Bear,” on the north side of Pembina River.

In witness whereof, the said Alexander Ramsey and Ashley C. Morrill, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the chiefs, headmen, and warriors of the Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians, have hereunto set their bands, at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River, in the State of Minnesota, this second day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three.

  • Alex. Ramsey,
  • Ashley. C. Morrill, Commissioners.
  • Mons-o-mo, his x mark, Moose Dung, Chief of Red Lake
  • Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, his x mark, Crooked Arm, Chief of Red Lake
  • Ase-e-ne-wub, his x mark, Little Rock Chief of Red Lak(e).
  • Mis-co-muk-quoh, his x mark, Red Bear, Chief of Pembina.
  • Ase-anse, his x mark, Little Shell, Chief of Pembina.
  • Mis-co-co-noy-a, his x mark, Red Rob, Warrior of Red Lake.
  • Ka-che-un-ish-e-naw-bay, his x mark,The Big Indian, Warrior of Red Lake.
  • Neo-ki-zhick, his x mark, Four Skies, Warrior of Red Lake.
  • Nebene-quin-gwa-hawegaw, his x mark, Summer Wolverine, Warrior of Pembina.
  • Joseph Gornon, his x mark, Warrior of Pembina.
  • Joseph Montreuil, his x mark, Warrior of Pembina.
  • Teb-ish-ke-ke-shig, his x mark, Warrior of Pembina.
  • May-shue-e-yaush, his x mark, Dropping Wind, Head Warrior of Red Lake.
  • Min-du-wah-wing, his x mark, Berry Hunter, Warrior of Red Lake.
  • Naw-gaun-e-gwan-abe, his x mark, Leading Feather, Chief of Red Lake.

Signed in presence of-

  • Paul H. Beaulieu, special interpreter.
  • Peter Roy,
  • T.A. Warren, United States Interpreter.
  • J.A. Wheelock, secretary.
  • Reuben Ottman, secretary.
  • George A. Camp, major Eighth Regiment Minnesota Volunteers.
  • William T. Rockwood, Captain Company K, Eighth Regiment Minnesota Volunteers.
  • P.B. Davy, Captain Company L. First Regiment Minnesota Mounted Rangers.
  • G.M. Dwelle, Second Lieutenant Third Minnesota Battery.
  • F.Rieger, Surgeon Eighth Regiment Minnesota Volunteers
  • L.S. Kidder, First Lieutenant Company L, First Minnesota Mounted Rangers.
  • Sam. B. Abbe.
  • C.A. Kuffer.
  • Pierre x Bottineau.

Treaty with the Chippewa — Red Lake and Pembina Bands, 1864

Articles supplementary to the treaty made and concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River, in the State of Minnesota, on the second day of October, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-three, between the United States of America, by their commissioners, Clark W. Thompson and Ashley C. Morrill, and the Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians, by their chiefs, head-men, and warriors, concluded at the city of Washington, District of Columbia, on the twelfth day of April in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-four, between the United States, by the said commissioners, of the one part, and the said bands of the Chippewa Indians, by their chiefs, head-men, and warriors, of the other part.

ARTICLE 1

The said Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians do hereby agree and assent to the provisions of the said treaty, concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River, as amended by the Senate of the United States by resolution bearing date the first of March, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-four.

ARTICLE 2

In consideration of the cession made by said treaty, concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River, and in lieu of the annuity payment provided for by the third article of said last-mentioned treaty, the United States will pay annually, during the pleasure of the President of the United States, to the Red Lake band of Chippewas the sum of ten thousand dollars, and to the Pembina band of Chippewas the sum of five thousand dollars, which said sums shall be distributed to the members of said bands, respectively, in equal amounts per capita, for which purpose an accurate enumeration and enrollment of the members of the respective bands shall be made by the officers of the United States.

ARTICLE 3

The United States will also expend annually, for the period of fifteen years, for the Red Lake band of Chippewas, for the purpose of supplying them with gilling-twine, cotton mater, calico, linsey, blankets, sheeting, flannels, provisions, farming-tools, and for such other useful articles, and for such other useful purposes as may be deemed for their best interests, the sum of eight thousand dollars: and will expend in like manner, and for a like period, and for like purposes, for the Pembina band of Chippewas, the sum of four thousand dollars.

ARTICLE 4

The United States also agree to furnish said bands of Indians, for the period of fifteen years, one blacksmith, one physician, one miller, and one farmer; and will also furnish them annually, during the same period, with fifteen hundred dollar’s worth of iron, steel, and other articles for blacksmithing purposes, and one thousand dollars for carpentering, and other purposes.

ARTICLE 5

The United States also agree to furnish for said Indians at some suitable point, to be determined by the Secretary of the Interior, a saw-mill with a run of millstones attached.

ARTICLE 6

It is further agreed, by and between the parties hereto, that article four of the said treaty, concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake river, and the amendment to said article, shall be modified as follows: that is to say, twenty-five thousand dollars of the amount thereby stipulated shall be paid to the chiefs of said bands, through their agent, upon the ratification of these articles, or so soon thereafter as practicable, to enable them to purchase provisions and clothing, presents to be distributed to their people upon their return to their homes; of which amount five thousand dollars shall be expended for the benefit of their chief, May-dwa-gwa-no-nind; and that from the remaining seventy five thousand dollars the claims of injured parties for depredations committed by said Indians on the goods of certain British and American traders at the mouth of the Red Lake River, and for exactions forcibly levied by them on the proprietors of the steamboat plying on the Red River, shall have priority of payment, and be paid in full, and the remainder thereof shall be paid pro rata upon the debts of said tribe incurred since the first day of January, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, to be ascertained by their agent in connection with the chiefs, in lieu of the commissioner or commissioners provided for in the fourth article of said treaty concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River.

ARTICLE 7

It is further agreed by the parties hereto, that, in lieu of the lands provided for the mixed-bloods by article eight of said treaty, concluded at the Old Crossing of Red Lake River, scrip shall be issued to such of said mixed-bloods as shall so elect, which shall entitle the holder to a like amount of land, and may be located upon any of the lands ceded by said treaty, but not elsewhere, and shall be accepted by said mixed-bloods in lieu of all future claims for annuities.

In testimony whereof, the said commissioners, on behalf of the United States, and the said chiefs, headmen, and war[r]iors, on behalf of the Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians, have hereunto affixed their hands and seals this twelfth day of April, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-four.

  • Clark W. Thompson, [Seal.]
  • Ashley C. Morrill, [Seal.]
  • Commissioners
  • Principal Red Lake chief, May-dwa-gua-no-nind (He that is spoken to), his x mark [seal.]
  • Red Lake chief, Mons-o-mo (Moose-dung), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Red Lake Chief, Ase-e-ne-wub (Little Rock), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Principal Pembina chief, Mis-co-muk quah (Red Bear),his x [seal.]
  • Pembina headman, Te-bish-co-ge-shick (Equal Sky), his x mark [seal.]
  • Red Lake warrior, Te-besh-co-he-ness (Straight Bird), his x mark [seal.]
  • Red Lake warrior, Osh-shay-o-sick (no interpretation), his x mark [seal.]
  • Red Lake headman, Naw-gon-egwo-nabe (Leading Feather), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Red Lake war[r]ior, Que-we-zance (The Boy), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Red Lake headman, May-zha-ke-osh (Dropping Wind), his x mark,[seal.]
  • Red Lake headman, Bwa-ness (Little Shoe), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Red Lake headman, Wa-bon-e-qua-osh (White Hair), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Red Lake warrior, Sa-sa-goh-cum-ick-ish cum (He that makes the ground tremble), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Red Lake warrior, Kay-tush-ke-wub-e-tung (no interpretation), his x mark, [seal.]
  • Pembina warrior, I-inge-e-gaun-abe, (Wants Feathers), his x mark [seal.]
  • Red Lake warrior, Que-we-zance-ish, (Bad Boy), his x mark [seal.]

Signed in presence of-

  • P.H. Beaulieu, special interpreter.
  • J.G. Morrison, special interpreter.
  • Peter Roy, special interpreter.
  • T.A. Warren, United States Interpreter
  • Chas. E. Gardell.
  • Charles Botteneau.

“The McCumber Agreement”

Agreement Between the Turtle Mountain Indians and the Commission

Appointed under the provisions of the Indian appropriation act of July, 1892, to negotiate with the Turtle Mountain band of Chippewa Indians in North Dakota, for the cession and relinquishment to the United States of whatever right or interest they have in and to any and all land in said State to which they claim title.

APPENDIX No. I

Articles of agreement and stipulations made and concluded at Belcourt, in the county of Rolette and the state of North Dakota, by and between Porter J. McCumber, John W. Wilson, and W. Woodville Fleming, commissioners on the part of the United States, on the twenty-second day of October, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-two, and Ka-ki-ne-wash, Kanik, Ka-ish-pah, Conie, Caws-ta-we-nin, Oza-ah-we-kizik, John Baptist Wilkie, Augustine Wilkie Sr., John Baptisst Vandall, Joseph Rolette, Jerome M. Rolette, St. Mathew Jerome, and Martin Jerome, and others whose names are hereto subscribed, being a majority of the whole number of male adults belonging to and comprising the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians in North Dakota, on the part and behalf of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians.

Article I

The friendly relations heretofore existing between the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians and the United States shall be forever maintained.

Article II

The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, in consideration of the convenants and stipulations hereinafter contained, do hereby cede, alien, and convey to the United States all the claims, estate, right, title and interest of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians or any of them as members of said band of Indians, in and to all lands, tenements, and hereditaments, situate lying and being in the state of North Dakota. Excepting and reserving from this conveyance that tract of land particularly mentioned and set apart by an executive order of the President of the United states, bearing date the third day of June, A.D. eighteen hundred and eighty-four, to which reference is hereby made for more particular description, the said reserve being twelve miles in length and six miles in breadth, and now occupied as a reservation by the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. It being expressly stipulated that the land now occupied and used for school, church, and Government purposes shall be held at the pleasure of the United States, and may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior of the United States, be patented when the interest of the United States, the Indians thereon, or the efficient school conduct requires; the Secretary of the interior may, as occasion requires, set apart other land in said reserve for school and other public uses.

Article III

The land, woods, and waters above reserved for the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, subject to the stipulations contained in article II of this treaty and agreement, shall be held as common property of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, and it is agreed that the United States shall, as soon as it can conveniently be done, cause the land hereby reserved and held for the use of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians to be surveyed as public lands are surveyed, for the purpose of enabling such Indians as desire to take homesteads, and the selections shall be so made as to include in each case, as far as possible the residence and improvements of the Indian making the selection giving to each an equitable proportion of natural advantages, and when it is not practicable to so apportion the entire homestead of land in one body, it may be set apart in separate tracts, not less than forty acres in any one tract, unless the same shall abut upon a lake—but all assignment of land in severalty shall conform to the government survey. The survey of this land shall be made as Government surveys and at no expense to the Indians.

Article IV

In consideration of the premises and the foregoing cession, the United States agrees to pay to the said Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians the sum of one million dollars, of which sum there shall be paid annually the sum of fifty thousand dollars for the period of twenty years, which sums shall be invested annually in food, clothing, bed clothing, houses, cattle, horses, all kinds of agricultural implements, and farm machinery and products, for seed for husbandry, and such things as may be approved by the Secretary of the Interior, who shall have the authority to direct such expenditures, and at such times in the building, improving, and repairing of houses as the needs of the Indians on the above reserve may require, except as hereinafter agreed.

Article V

The schools now located upon the above-named reserve are to be maintained in efficiency as at present and increased as necessity may require.

Article VI

All members of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewas who may be unable to secure land upon the reservation above ceded may take homesteads upon any vacant land belonging to the United States without charge, and shall continue to hold and be entitled to such share in all tribal funds, annuities, or other property, the same as if located on the reservations.

Article VII

So long as the United states retains and holds title to any land in the use or occupation of any member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians or the title to other property in the possession of any Indian of said band, which it may do for twenty years, there shall be no tax or other duty levied or assessed upon the property the title to which is held or retained by the United States.

Article VIII

And in further consideration of the foregoing cession and stipulations, it is further stipulated that the six hundred and forty acres of land heretofore reserved to “ Red Bear” a Chippewa Indian, by the treaty between the United States and the Red Lake and Pembina Bands of Chippewa Indian, concluded in Minnesota, October 2, amended March 1, 1864, proclaimed May 5, 1864, be patented to red Bear, a member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, who is the only son and heir of the “Red Bear” named in the eighth article of the treaty above referred to and mentioned.

Article IX

It is further conveyed and agreed that under no circumstances the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians nor any members of said band of Indians shall take up arms against or resist the established authorities of the United States; every person so violating this stipulation shall in the discretion of the United States be forever barred from the benefits of this agreement, and all rights of such person and persons hereunder shall be forfeited to the United States.

Article X

This agreement to be of no binding force or effect until ratified by the Congress of the United States.

Article XI

It is mutually agreed that the sum of five thousand dollars of the fifty thousand dollars above stipulated be annually paid to the Turtle Mountain Band of Indians, in cash, and that said sum be distributed per capita.

In testimony whereof the said Porter J. McCumber, John W. Wilson,and W. Woodville Flemming, commissioners, as aforesaid, and the members of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, have hereunto set their hands and affixed their official marks on the day and at the place above written.

Executed at Belcourt Agency, North Dakota, this 22nd Day of October, A.D. 1892.

  • P.J. McCumber (seal)
  • John W. Wilson (seal)
  • W. Woodville Flemming (seal)
  • Commissioners

We, the undersigned, separately and severally certify on honor that we have fully explained to the Indians whose names are hereto signed the above instrument, and that they acknowledge the same to be well understood by them.

  • John Baptiste Ledeault
  • Joseph Rolette
  • (Signed by Ka-kin-e-wash and over 200 others.) Ex. Doc. 229, 52nd Congress, 2nd Session.

Appendix No. 2

Amendments to an original agreement between the United States and the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians made on October 22, 1892:

Article IV

Article IV as originally written is stricken, and the following is inserted to replace it:

In consideration of the premises and the foregoing cession, the United States agrees to pay to the said Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians the sum of one million dollars, such amount to be paid in cash in yearly installments, whichever the Secretary of the Interior deems best for the tribe. PROVIDED: if payment is made in yearly installments, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to spend the prorate share of each Indian as his need may require in building, repairing and improving the houses off the Indian people except as hereinafter agreed.

Article V

Article V is amended to read:

The schools now located upon the reserve are to be maintained at the present level, so long as the Secretary of the Interior feels it necessary but no longer than twenty years.

Article VIII

Article VIII as originally written is removed from the agreement and not replaced.

Article XI

Article XI as originally written is removed from the agreement and not replaced.

(Senate document No. 471 (1904) pp. 2-6)

  • Ka-kin-ewash, his x mark [seal].
  • Cawi-ta we nin, his x mark [seal].
  • Kiji Kaak-ke-nija-wit, his x mark [seal].
  • Ketakiwapetong, his x mark [seal].
  • Amayatt Francais, his x mark [seal].
  • J.B. Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Brien, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Aiken, his x mark [seal].
  • Gourneau, Louis, his x mark [seal].
  • Peter Charbennan, his x mark [seal].
  • Grant, Joseph, his x mark [seal].
  • Gabriel Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Ambrose Wallet, his x mark [seal].
  • Zachary Poitra, his x mark [seal].
  • Louis Goddon, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Martel, his x mark [seal].
  • Knakomika, his x mark [seal].
  • Aki chita, his x mark [seal].
  • Cha kasung, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptiste Dandall, his x mark [seal].
  • O-za-was-kush, his x mark [seal].
  • Andre Allery, sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Nottin, his x mark [seal].
  • Gourneau, Joseph, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Gourneau, Alexander, his x mark [seal].
  • M.J. Rolette, his x mark [seal].
  • Albert Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Lucier, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Poitra, his x mark [seal].
  • St. Mathew Jerome, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Hermon, his x mark [seal].
  • Eugene Pepin, his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Houle, sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Houle, his x mark [seal].
  • Moses Dionne, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Peltier, his x mark [seal].
  • Jospeh Lafrombois, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Nepate Kejik, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptiste Davis, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Charett, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Theodore Belgarde, sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Gabriel Poitra, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Gabriel Poitra, Jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Andre Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Kanik, , his x mark [seal].
  • Conic, his x mark [seal].
  • Skasitoness, his x mark [seal].
  • Mishkomakwa, his x mark [seal].
  • kaozawakezik, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Langer, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Gourneau, sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Gourneau, Batrice, his x mark [seal].
  • Grant Riese, his x mark [seal].
  • Willian Grant, his x mark [seal].
  • Baptise Kline, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Poitra, his x mark [seal].
  • Louis Arnyott, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Gabries Banchimen, his x mark [seal].
  • Kaishpa, his x mark [seal].
  • Wahna Kivet, his x mark [seal].
  • Ozawikonaya, his x mark [seal].
  • Ka-kepiness, his x mark [seal].
  • Mekwam, his x mark [seal].
  • Roger Jerome, his x mark [seal].
  • Archibald Aiken, his x mark [seal].
  • John Aiken, his x mark [seal].
  • Gourneau, Leon, his x mark [seal].
  • Garbiel Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Rolette, his x mark [seal].
  • Jenor Biren, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Latraille, his x mark [seal].
  • Modest Poitra, his x mark [seal].
  • Phillip Goddon, his x mark [seal].
  • Solomon Pepin, his x mark [seal].
  • Edward Herman, his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Houle, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Thomas, Joseph Smith, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Baptiste Peltier, his x mark [seal].
  • Thheodore Brien, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptiste Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Daniel Turcott, his x mark [seal].
  • Isadore Gramboise, his x mark [seal].
  • Moses Charett, his x mark [seal].
  • Henry Oncept, his x mark [seal].
  • Louie Belgarde, his x mark [seal].
  • William Poitra, his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Wilkie, his x mark [seal].
  • Francois Langer, his x mark [seal].
  • Francis Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Moses Wallet, his x mark [seal].
  • Napoleon Houle, his x mark [seal].
  • William Thomas, his x mark [seal].
  • Israel Smith, sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Moses Lapier, his x mark [seal].
  • Augustine Wilkie, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Decouteau, his x mark [seal].
  • William Davis, Jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Baptiste Charrett, his x mark [seal].
  • Thomas Cluthier, his x mark [seal].
  • Jerome Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Belgarde, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Poitra, 2nd, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptist Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Frederic, his x mark [seal].
  • Isadore Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Mathais Lafromboixe, his x mark [seal].
  • Gregory Martell, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Martell, his x mark [seal].
  • Edmond Rolette, his x mark [seal].
  • Bacile Belgard, his x mark [seal].
  • Gilbert Belgarde, his x mark [seal].
  • Benard Delorme, his x mark [seal].
  • Francios Vivier, 2nd, his x mark [seal].
  • David Lavadure, his x mark [seal].
  • Mazime Marion, his x mark [seal].
  • Abraham Boyer, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Jerome, his x mark [seal].
  • Michael Gladue, his x mark [seal].
  • Napoleon Allery, his x mark [seal].
  • Louis Amyott, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Benjamin Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • F. X. Desjarlais, his x mark [seal].
  • John B. Martell, his x mark [seal].
  • Louis Thomas, his x mark [seal].
  • Francios Montrail, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Du(?)ney, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Nadeau, his x mark [seal].
  • Andre Morin, his x mark [seal].
  • Andre Morin, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Montriel, his x mark [seal].
  • St. Pierre Lavadure, his x mark [seal].
  • Loius Marion, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Gladue, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Maxime Marion, Jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Daniel Jerome, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Daneil Jerome, Jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • C. Lafontaine, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph E. Marion, his x mark [seal].
  • Skamistik, his x mark [seal].
  • Pakena-ke-wap, his x mark [seal].
  • Pat-wa-wi-nin, his x mark [seal].
  • She-she-we-ko-nip-, his x mark [seal].
  • Nepasish, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Gourneau, his x mark [seal].
  • Behard Houle, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Smith, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Paul Peltier, his x mark [seal].
  • Gabriel Lafromboise, his x mark [seal].
  • Augustine Wilkie, Jr., his x mark [seal].
  • J. B. Turcott, his x mark [seal].
  • Leonidas Davis, his x mark [seal].
  • Francios Charrett, his x mark [seal].
  • Peter Ducept, his x mark [seal].
  • Theodore Belgarde, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Nobert Poitra, his x mark [seal].
  • Octave Lafontaine, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptist Grant, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Lacert, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptist Dejarlais, his x mark [seal].
  • Patrice Lafromboise, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptist St. Antona, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Laframboise, his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Gelgard, his x mark [seal].
  • Modes Caplett, his x mark [seal].
  • Jacques Peltier, his x mark [seal].
  • David Laverdure, his x mark [seal].
  • Napoleon Lavadure, his x mark [seal].
  • Amrase Vivier, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Gladue, his x mark [seal].
  • Julian Jerome, his x mark [seal].
  • Andre Allery, his x mark [seal].
  • Maartin Jerome, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptist Lafromboise, his x mark [seal].
  • Narciss Lafrombois, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Azure, Sr., his x mark [seal].
  • Thomas Thomas, his x mark [seal].
  • Michael Lafromboise, his x mark [seal].
  • Batrice Delorme, his x mark [seal].
  • Octave Renville, his x mark [seal].
  • St. Piers Gladue, his x mark [seal].
  • James Azure, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Lavadure, his x mark [seal].
  • William Lavadure, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Page, his x mark [seal].
  • Charles Gladue, Jr., his x mark [seal].
  • J.B. Marion, his x mark [seal].
  • Baptiste Allery, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptiste Ducept, his x mark [seal].
  • Ezear Lafountaine, his x mark [seal].
  • J.B. Ledeault, his x mark [seal].
  • John Baptiste Langer, his x mark [seal].
  • Oskino, No. 1, his x mark [seal].
  • Kat-we-hu-ta-wat, his x mark [seal].
  • Kekanowenet, his x mark [seal].
  • Nepis, his x mark [seal].
  • Amicens, his x mark [seal].
  • Makatemakwah, his x mark [seal].
  • Akash, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Lavalle, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Kipling, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere McCloud, his x mark [seal].
  • Moses Decauteau, his x mark [seal].
  • Onizim Houle, his x mark [seal].
  • Henry Coitra, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Lafontaine, his x mark [seal].
  • Andre Dejarlais, his x mark [seal].
  • Antoine Charboneau, his x mark [seal].
  • Sakanako-skung, his x mark [seal].
  • Wisheka, his x mark [seal].
  • Puyat, his x mark [seal].
  • Nwenapi, his x mark [seal].
  • Renaseekapajiekot, his x mark [seal].
  • Wapisketatik, his x mark [seal].
  • Napashish, No. 1, his x mark [seal].
  • Ambrose Ehattrand, his x mark [seal].
  • Maxime Landry, his x mark [seal].
  • George Baker, his x mark [seal].
  • Francois Vivier, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Tepiskokejikkaneepawit, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Bottineau, his x mark [seal].
  • Ezear Lafontaine, his x mark [seal].
  • Fred, W. Schindler, his x mark [seal].
  • John Haves, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Lessott, his x mark [seal].
  • Exos, his x mark [seal].
  • Metonask, his x mark [seal].
  • Alexander Houle, his x mark [seal].
  • Napoleon Landry, his x mark [seal].
  • Monchan-a-te-sis, Louis Malaterre, , his x mark [seal].
  • Cemewetung, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Lyemouane, his x mark [seal].
  • Akewensie, his x mark [seal].
  • John Dejarlais, his x mark [seal].
  • Ozah-we-kijik, his x mark [seal].
  • Nachaiwe, his x mark [seal].
  • Ke-pesa-see, his x mark [seal].
  • Miskwangkay, his x mark [seal].
  • Medomoyaah, his x mark [seal].
  • Kamana-towe-to-kuah, his x mark [seal].
  • Patwewetung, his x mark [seal].
  • J.B. Jollibois, his x mark [seal].
  • Gilbert Kipling, his x mark [seal].
  • Norbert Landry, his x mark [seal].
  • Piere Lakat, his x mark [seal].
  • John B. Martelle, jr., his x mark [seal].
  • Ozawipijikens, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Allery, his x mark [seal].
  • We-nakowikapo, his x mark [seal].
  • Joseph Landeer, his x mark [seal].
  • John B. Laterregrass, his x mark [seal].

We certify on honor that we were present and witnessed the signatures to this instrument by the Indians above.

  • Ernest William Brenner
  • Wellington Salt