Part 5: In a Nutshell

  • All of North Dakota’s Indian tribes are Plains Indians because North Dakota is on the plains.
  • “Culture” is the way of life of a group of people.
  • Elders are the most respected people of a tribe because they have wisdom.
  • The tipi was the main home of most of the nomadic tribes and was also used by other tribes on hunting trips.
  • The agricultural tribes lived in earthlodges.
  • The birch-bark wigwam was the main dwelling of the Chippewa people.
  • Before the arrival of the horse on the plains, dogs were used to help transport goods.
  • A travois, pulled by a dog or a horse, was a frame for carrying goods.
  • All of the Plains Indians depended on the bison for food.
  • Pemmican was a healthful dried food that was easy for hunting parties to carry.
  • After the bison were gone, most Plains Indians were forced to move to reservations so that they would not starve.
  • Many styles of regalia have been handed down through the generations and are worn today for special occasions.
  • Many children from reservations were forced to attend boarding schools where they were forbidden to speak their own language or dress in their own clothes.
  • The Plains Indians believed in the Great Spirit.
  • The Medicine Wheel is a reminder that all things are connected.
  • The number “4” was special to the Plains Indians.
  • The Give-Away ceremony shows the importance of generosity.
  • The story of White Buffalo Calf Woman tells how the Lakota people got the sacred pipe.
  • The most important religious event of the Lakota and other Plains Indians was the Sun Dance.
  • A medicine bundle is given to a person at birth and is buried with that person at death.
  • An eagle feather is a sacred object for American Indians.
  • It is against the law for a non-Indian to possess an eagle feather.
  • A powwow is a social event of getting together with friends and dancing.
  • The drum is the basic musical instrument used at powwows because it is a symbol of the heartbeat of the universe.
  • The whole setting of a powwow is a circle.
  • The Eagle Staff is the traditional flag of American Indians.
  • Descendants of Paleo-Indians, Archaic People, Woodland People, Plains Nomadic People, and Plains Village People became the modern American Indians of today.
  • Life for the American Indians of North Dakota changed significantly after Euro-Americans arrived in the area.
  • Members of tribes are citizens of two nations—their tribal nation and the United States.
  • The warriors of today are the men and women who serve in the military.
  • Veterans are shown special honor and respect.
  • People who understand other cultures will treat all people with respect.
  • American Indians add richness to our state in many ways and can feel very proud to be called “American Indians of North Dakota.”